Monday, September 30, 2019

Renting and Price

Corey Allen BA504 February 19,2013 Abstract In 1997, Netflix became the first online movie by mail Rental Company. Hastings and Randolph co-founded the company. By 1999, they had come up with a $19. 99 per month price plan for customer to rent as many movies that they wanted with no late fees. In 2011, Netflix shocked their customers with their new price plan by splitting the streamlining of movies to one price and DVD by mail with another price. With the change, Netflix lost one million customers. Pertinent facts in the caseThe pertinent facts in this case study are that in 1997, Reed Hastings and Marc Randalph co-founded Netflix. Hastings was upset due to late fee’s he received when he went to return movies that he had rented six weeks earlier. At first, when Hastings came up with the idea, VHS tapes were used for rental, so the cost to ship VHS tapes was too expensive. Then one of Hastings friends advised him of the new DVD technology. With the new DVD technology, Hastings packages the DVD’s in a single envelope and shipped it to himself to see if the DVD would be damaged.When he received the DVD and found that it was undamaged, he began to create mail-order movie rental business. When Netflix first started, the price to rent a movie was $4 with a $2 shipping fee. With this new service, customers were able to have movies mailed to them, but they had to be back by a certain date or they would be charged late fees. In 1999, Netflix launched a new subscription service, which gave their customers unlimited rentals for a monthly fee of $15. 95 per month. With the subscription, subscribers were able to rent four movies per month.Within a year, Netflix improved the unlimited movies subscription plan and changed the price to $19. 99 per month. With the new plan, customers were able to rent as many movies as they desire and they could keep them as long as they wanted, but they could only keep four movies at a time. By 2007, Netflix had him a major miles tone by hitting one billion movie rental deliveries. That same year, Netflix introduced streamlining of movies directly to either the customer’s home computer. By 2008, customers were able to stream movies through their game consoles.With customers now able to stream movies directly to their computer or game consoles, Netflix came out with a price plan of $9. 99 per month for streamlining and DVD rental by mail. What is the situation? In 2011, Netflix announced that they would be separating the streamlining of videos and DVD by mail into two subscription prices. The price for streamlining would be $7. 99 per month and DVD by mail would be $7. 99 per month, so if you wanted to both stream movies and rent movies by mail, you would have to pay two different subscription fees.Netflix also announced that the movie by mail service would be run through qwikster. com. With the price increase of 60% and the announcement of the new website, Netflix lost one million subscribers, taking there subscription total of 25 million, down to 24 million subscribers. Along with the loss of subscribers, Netflix’s stock price dropped from a value of $298 to $169, which is a 40% loss in value. Who is involved? Reed Hastings was who was involved with the price change and he released a statement on September 18, 2011 stating that he had messed up with the way the price change took place.He went on to try and explain why the price change took place. What are the pertinent issues? The pertinent issues are that when Netflix announced the price change, they made the change fast and did not give their subscriber a chance to decide what they wanted to do. Basically Netflix announced the price change and made the change. By not giving their subscribers a chance to think about the new price change, they just went with it. By doing this, Netflix lost one million subscribers. These price changes not only affected the subscribers, it also affected their stock price.If Netflix would h ave gave more of a notice and the reasoning behind the price change, maybe they would not have lost as many subscribers. Recommendations for Netflix The actions that I would recommend for Netflix to recover from a marketing misdirection are that they should have eased into the new price plan or offer a promotional price to their current subscriber. For example, Netflix could have announced the new price plan and at the same time with the new price plan, they could have given their current customer a free trial so that they had the option of either paying the $7. 99 for either the stream lining or the DVD by mail.By allowing their customers the free trial, Netflix would be showing their customers that they appreciate their business, but they needed to make the price change to fit all customers need. I believe the theory break from reality for Netflix hit hard when they lost so many subscribers. With the price change and loss in subscribers, it opened the doors for Amazon to retain so me of the Netflix subscribers. How the arrived to their decision? Netflix arrived to the decision to split the membership in two when they realized that even with the streamlining of movies; customers were still renting movies by mail.Netflix also realized that not all there subscriber were taking advantage of the streamlining and the subscribers were only renting movies by mail. So by splitting the subscription into two price plans, customers had the choice of streamlining, renting by mail, or both. Conclusion I think the price change was necessary for Netflix, but I think they approached it the wrong way. I was one of the million subscribers who canceled their subscription due to the price change. But even with that said, after about two year, I’m now back with Netflix and I’m subscribing to the streamlining of videos.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Got Milk Study Essay

â€Å" Got Milk? † 1. You are the California Mike Processor Board (CMPB) and your advertising agency was the originator of the successful â€Å"got milk? † campaign. Now all milk producers, including your competition are using the same advertising. How might you establish points of difference from your competitors selling milk? * Spread a new kind of portable packaged dairy beverage. It’s mainly made from milk but with fresh taste, which is distinguished from the pure milk. Also, it has many flavors, like peanut, almond, cashew nut, coffee, blueberry, banana, apple and other fruits. Expand â€Å"Got milk? † meaning, added it with â€Å"Got Milk Today? † and â€Å"Just Drinking Milk for Fun†. * Switching consumers’ traditional concepts that â€Å"I should† to â€Å"I want†. The new message aims to remind customers the possibility of â€Å"drinking milk when you just want a drink† instead of regarding milk only as â€Å"a necessity with cereal†, †an accompaniment with cookies and sandwiches† or â€Å"an ingredient in coffee, milkshakes and soup†. * Launching a new campaign to persuade consumers that the new milk beverage can be drunk not only in the breakfast, but also in any occasions people want to have a drink. Also, this kind of new dairy drink is suitable for any age, not specific for the youth or children. * Expand the distribution channels that consumers can easily access to this dairy beverage, especially in the restaurant, fast food chains, convenient stores, vender machine, etc. 2. Create your â€Å"brand image† of milk. What are the key associations of milk in the minds of consumers and how have you arrived at your answer? * Our brand image is â€Å"Got Milk For Fun Today! †, which means consumers can drink this dairy beverage anytime and anywhere, when they want to drink something, as the same as they want to drink sodas, juice, coffee, tea or hot chocolate. The new California dairy beverage is made from milk containing rich calcium and protein, which is healthier than sodas; it is more tasty than milk itself since it has been made into various flavored beverages; and it has convenient bottled-package as other beverages which can be drunk in the fancy restaurant, at school, in the gym, in driving-car, even in a bar. * According to the UDIA national consumer survey results, most people think milk is a healthy drink, a good source of calcium, a need for youth, as well as adults. And usually people drink milk when they eat breakfast with cereal, lunch with sandwiches, dinner with family meal. In a word, people are seldom â€Å"willing† to drink milk itself and few people would think of milk as beverage outside home. * Therefore, we want to change the â€Å"serious food† image into a kind of â€Å"entertainment† with the idea â€Å"Drink Milk for Fun†. We attempt to impress consumers that this flavored healthy dairy beverage is also can drink outside when you talk with friends, walk to somewhere, dine out with family, etc. The â€Å"end-users health benefits of milk† are just moderately motivation, but â€Å"have fun† can be a more effective motivator. We want to build up a new connection between fluid dairy and consumers’ interests in our brand image to remind consumers that milk is not a â€Å"forgettable† beverage in everyone’s life. 3. What is more important for the successful long—term growth of milk, â€Å"brand performance† or â€Å"brand imagery† and why? * â€Å"Brand performance† describes how well the product or service meets customers’ more functional needs. * â€Å"Brand imagery† depends on the extrinsic properties of the product or service, including the ways in which the brand attempts to meet customers’ psychological or social needs. * Brand imagery is more important for the long-term success of milk growth. * Since milk is a kind of product which owns high awareness among end-users, everyone knows it’s healthy, but it doesn’t mean that they have desire to consume it, especially for its old-fashion and serious image. Therefore, it’s more important for us to change the traditional brand imagery in customers’ mind, especially the purchase and usage situations. As most customers consume milk only with other food and only at home for breakfast, to increase the purchase and consume of milk, the first thing is to increase the possible occasions for milk consume in customers’ mind. * In addition, customers know milk’s brand performance well, so it won’t be that helpful for long-term growth if we focus on the functional needs. However, consumers who are high â€Å"self-monitors† and sensitive to how others see them are more likely to choose brands whose personalities fit the consumption situation. So it’s more effective to advertise psychological and social needs, to establish the associations with â€Å"fun†, and provide customers with fresh feelings and ideas about milk, like what â€Å"Got Milk? † have done years ago. 4. What are the Points of Parity and the Points of difference for milk versus other beverages consumed at breakfast? * Since there are various beverages, we discuss the parity and difference based on the different kinds of beverage. * Point of Parity of milk versus other beverage: Fruit juice, coffee, tea & Milk: necessary for people at breakfast Fruit juice & Milk: contain rich nutrition. Coffee, tea & Milk: various flavors * Point of difference of milk versus other beverages: First, milk is a necessity with cereal and some other food in the breakfast. Unlike fruit juice, milk can be an ingredient in the morning coffee and tea. Second, it’s a healthy benefit for growth and good source of calcium, which cannot be replaced by any other beverage. In addition, comparing with addiction to caffeine by drinking coffee, milk drinking for years only benefits people’s health. Last but not least, milk is relatively cheaper than other beverage. 5. The â€Å"Got milk? † advertising campaign in some form has run for over ten years. What can the California Milk Processors Board do to keep the message and strategy fresh in the consumer’s minds? * In this more than-ten year campaign, the â€Å"Got Milk† and â€Å"Milk Mustache† are still fun but not enough to catch consumers’ eyes. No matter how wonderful the â€Å"Got Milk? † campaign is, year after year, people will be fed up with the same message and strategy. * To retrieve the energy of advertising, we deliver some new messages and strategy to bring some fresh air into â€Å"Got Milk? † campaign. Adding the new element â€Å"Drink Milk for Fun† in the â€Å"Got Milk? † means changing the â€Å"milk is as boring as a beverage could possibly be† image in consumers’ minds. As a result, it appeals consumers to keep the interests in consuming more milk. * Engage consumers in the new campaign. Increase consumers’ awareness of drinking more milk by lunching promotion include the free sample-drinking on the downtown street, direct mail with coupon, social activity like dairy fan club etc. * Ultimate goal is to remind consumers to think of milk as a kind of beverage and to drink milk itself, or better, drink more. The new element in advertise will also recall people’s good memory of the â€Å"Got Milk? † in the past.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Effects of Verbal Communication Essay

Verbal Communication Communication of all types can be found everywhere. It does not necessarily have to be spoken or oral, it can be found in verbal and nonverbal forms. This is especially true in the areas of the criminal justice system. Communications can be found in equipment, reports, phones, in roll call, or everyday operations. For police officers and other members of the criminal justice system, communication in some form or type can always be certain. It may be in the form of verbal communication, such as roll call, talking with the public, talking to peers, inmates, administration, or supervisors. It is said that nearly 70 percent of one’s time is spent communicating (2009). Officers or those appointed by the department, talk to the media on a daily basis. Whether it is the television, the newspaper reporters, or the radio, it is on a daily basis. For law enforcement officials there is the need to communicate with the press from time to time. This could be to talk about public affairs, providing information about a situation that the police are involved in, or to make announcements. It is common in most areas that law enforcement appoints a spokesperson for the department. This person chosen represents the community and the department, along with all officers. This person must have the intelligence and the ability to speak clearly and in a concise manner, and have the ability to understand questions if asked. He or she should have some clear understanding of what the media only needs to hear. One way to assure this is to him or her draft a statement, before making the announcement to the press. When drafting the announcement and when reading the announcement, the person should avoid using what is called police jargon or codes. Using such language can be confusing to the general public and may cause confusion with the press. When talking to the press he or she should be able to avoid being distracted and should keep eye contact with those who he or she are talking to. Nonverbal communication between the press and officers can also have a confusing effect at time. â€Å"Sometimes nonverbal messages may contradict verbal; often they may express true feelings more accurately than the spoken or written language (Murphy & Hildebrandt). For nonverbal communication, the situations that he or she may want to be careful with can include the stance. There should be no slouching or leaning on the podium. This gives an appearance of the press seeing that he or she either does not want to be there or it could show disinterest. The spokesperson choose vocabulary carefully also. He or she may want to use a friendly tone also, and avoid using emotions during the press release. This must remember that the press usually ahs cameras somewhere that records everything that is said verbally and nonverbally, which may cause some confusion. The courtroom is another place that communication is done daily. Within this setting the law enforcement officer or other personnel, may be called to testify for the prosecutor. Communication in the courtroom setting for police, prosecutors, defense, the suspect, judge and jury, all play a crucial part. The officer when called to testify, should have the ability to understand the questions clearly, is able to listen effectively, and be able to explain the facts written in his or her report. The affidavit is based on the facts that have been written in the officers’ incident report. There may be situations or times when an officer feels uncomfortable, while sitting or standing in a group of other people. Or he or she may fill uncomfortable when having to be in front of the others in the courtroom. The officer should never let emotions or nonverbal cues cloud his or her testimony. During cross-examine; the reputation of the officer could be misinterpreted. Before testimony officers should try to talk to the prosecutor to learn what to expect. He or she may want to practice the testimony also. Being able to communicate verbally and use less nonverbal cues like emotions, could make the difference in the testimony. When testifying the officer should be able to answer in a clear and audible voice with recalling or stating just the facts. He or she may also want to remember to present themselves as a professional and to look and act as one. Not only is his or her reputation at stake, but the department also. For law enforcement personnel who work inside the correctional facility, communication techniques can be a critical part of the job. Officers must be able to talk to their peers, and inmates. The ability to be an active listener, understand, read and write clearly and to follow verbal and nonverbal orders are very important. There may be issues at time among inmates that may cause a barrier of communication. Some of these barriers could include the disruptive inmate, a language barrier, such as a foreign language or a deaf person. There may be the inmate that may cause tension between the officers and others. There are many factors to consider on how to communicate within the correctional setting. There is the use of daily reports that must be filled out by officers. There has to be a clear understanding by the officers and other employees of operating procedures. Incident reports that are fact based must be filled out by officers involved. As with police the correctional officer must also confront inmates and vice versa. The officer should at all times be careful of the nonverbal clues used. This would include his or her emotions at the time, the way he or she stands, or the tone of voice. Most correctional officers are trained on the use of verbal and nonverbal methods of communications before being assigned to the facility (2010). For the peer to peer communication the officer must be able to understand the assignment given, whether it is verbal or nonverbal communications. Assignments are usually given at the beginning of the shift, and it is the responsibility of the officer and peer to have a clear understanding of what it is. If the officer does not understand it is his or her responsibility to ask questions. Another form of peer to peer is among the officers themselves. Communication is a key role inside of the correctional facility when working with the inmates. He or she should be able to understand clearly the instructions that pertain to an inmate or surroundings. He or she must be able to read nonverbal cues from other officers and to be able to read nonverbal cues from the inmates. Within the Juvenile facility, there is a great need for communication of nonverbal and verbal. Like any other facility the officers must be able to understand the importance of filing out the report, whether it be an incident, daily, or new arrival. Each officer must have the intelligence and ability to be able to communicate with a juvenile in custody. Like inmates in the adult correctional setting, juveniles may also become belligerent at times and want to cause problems. The officer must be able to talk with the juvenile as well as be able to listen. Officers must also be able to read the nonverbal cues that are given by the inmates. These could include actions such as throwing of things, language, the stance, eye contact, vocal sounds, and emotions such as anger, sadness and more. Juveniles have a language that seems to be something that they have learned. Most people call it street slang and signs. Most officers are provided continuing training on problems involving juveniles, as well as training to understand the signs and slang used by them. For Officers and other employees of the juvenile facility there is the need to understand clearly the written reports, the operational procedures, releasing of information to outside agencies and families and the ability to talk clearly to peers. Officers and other employees may be called on to answer questions over the phone, concerning a juvenile. They may have to work on computers, and other equipment, or spend hours doing paperwork. This is all an important part of communicating within the facility. When an officer’s peer assigns the officer to a certain department in the facility the officer must have a clear understanding of what is expected of him or her at the time. The one way for the officer to make certain of the assignment, is to ask the needed questions if any should arise. The officer must be able to take orders on a continuous basis and be able to understand the details. When working with other officers there has to be a clear line of communication between the officers. Nonverbal cues, as with any other law enforcement facility should be easily read. The officer must have the ability to do so, in case something should happen. These nonverbal cues could be eye contact, a facial expression, or a nudge, or a physical gesture such as the wave of a hand. As with any other situation officers that work in a juvenile facility must show professionalism and act accordingly. The officer must be careful when using nonverbal communication. These include keeping the emotions from getting away from him or her, keeping the tone of his or her voice from becoming too loud, watching the stance and posture when talking to other employees, inmates, and peers. Communication can be seen in many different forms. These can include fact based reports by law enforcement officers, correctional officers, reports to the press or other media, juvenile facilities and courtrooms. There may be barriers for the officers at times, such as language, ineffective listening, a misunderstanding, or miscommunication. Whatever the reason, for one to communicate properly there must be the ability to understand, listen actively, ask questions when needed, and to speak clearly when asked to. For law enforcement and others in the criminal justice system the need to recognize nonverbal communication is essential. An officer must be able to identify cues given by a suspect, or by an inmate in custody. The law enforcement official should always act and speak in a professional matter when facing the public or fellow workers and supervisors or administrators. He or she must remember that they represent not only themselves but the departments and states they reside in. Effective communication is the key to an effective organization such as the criminal justice system.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Doea 'informal social control' have any part in explaining the Essay

Doea 'informal social control' have any part in explaining the differential rates of male and female offending - Essay Example The culture is the most dominant factor that has significant impact on the perceived roles of men and women. ‘Boys will be boys’ the famous adage is a prime example of communication behaviour that is appropriate for boys but which would not be suitable for girls. â€Å"women experience linguistic discrimination in two ways: in the way they are taught to use language, and in the way general language usage treats them† (Lakoff). It makes it easier for men to commit crime than women. The religiosity of a particular strata of society or the social structure of that region, contribute to the way people respond towards socially relevant issues and gender inequality. The socio-economical environment and political leanings promote orthodoxy and fanaticism. Patriarchal society endorses male domination that deliberately cast women in the inferior roles and restricts their personal and social development to compete with their counterparts on equal terms. Women, especially in the current time, adopt ways and means to exhibit their independence and empowerment through actions that sometimes border in criminal activities. It is one the reason that explains criminal activities amongst women. According to national statistics, ‘men commit more crimes than women. In 2004, male offenders in England and Wales outnumbered female offenders by more than four to one’ (BCS1, 2004). The survey showed that in all the major crime categories, men out numbered women in committing the crime but it is a distressing fact that the women remained the main target or victims of the crime. It will not be incorrect to say that despite the advancement made in almost all areas of life, the women remain vulnerable target of socio-cultural values. There are various means through which persons imbibe the values that they carry all through their life. Some of them may be through the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Adult Lifelong Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Adult Lifelong Learning - Essay Example The stages can serve the adult educators by finding out the vital link between their development and how useful it will be for them in the long-range scheme of things. It will tell them exactly how their nuances would be handled and what needs to be discerned as far as the future domains are concerned. The adult educators have a good enough idea as to how their success graph would be measured and what they need to learn over a period of time. It will them exactly where they are lacking and what they need to adapt with the passage of time. 3. If you were to take a course, in which stage from above would you be? How would it influence your choice? If I was allowed to choose a course from the different development stages, I will go for early adulthood as this is the age that I am looking forward to having currently. It will tell me exactly how the transition within my life will come about and what I must adopt in order to move forward with the different undertakings of my own life. Exer cise 2: Based on the following document, titled Focus on Basics, define Informational vs. Transformational Teaching. In your journal, comment on which one applies to your own teaching philosophy and why? Informational teaching is comprised of providing information towards the educators’ domains whereby he reads the instructions beforehand and then goes about implementing the same. The aspect of transformational teaching is a bit different where the transformation takes place on a natural level. There is the acquisition of skill with proper knowledge not being present; however, the knowledge and information are gained with the passage of time through actual learning regimes that are employed. Informational teaching makes use of the proper guidelines which are already in place and that need to be studied out loud in order to reap success for the educators.

Case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 34

Case study - Essay Example As a sole proprietor, Megan is responsible for decisions of the business and therefore enjoys autonomy over her creativity plans. This will also protect her business from possible takeover by competitors such as Bean Counters. As a sole decision maker under sole proprietorship, Megan reserves the power to determine when the business goes public, and percentage of shares to offer, but any other form of business will deprive her of such autonomy. As a sole proprietor, Megan is also able to borrow finances, without any internal opposition, for financing her operations. Since her acquaintances are willing to offer different forms of help, she can incorporate them as creditors, employees, or volunteers to the business. Other forms of business organizations such as partnership and companies will however limit her power over the business (Miller and Jentz 353- 357). In managing threats from her employees’ engagement in competitive businesses, Megan can create contracts with her employees that prohibits the employees from engaging in competitive activities with a given duration (Miller and Jentz 200-

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Lewis Nordan's Wolf Whistle account of the Till Murder Essay

Lewis Nordan's Wolf Whistle account of the Till Murder - Essay Example He claims that his "racial identification with the murderers" troubled him and that he felt "by race and geography [...] somehow implicated." He adds, "[M]aybe I believed that as a white guy who knew the [murderers] and never spoke out against the injustice, or even asked a question about it at the dinner table, it was simply not my story to tell". Eventually he realized that he could use his fiction to explore his feeling of implication and the society in which he feels so implicated. In Wolf Whistle, he has written what he calls "the white trash version of the Emmett Till murder": " [...] the story of the people who were on the periphery of this terrible thing, who didn't know what was going on, didn't quite understand their own culpability in the situation". Nordan's project in Wolf Whistle has an affinity with that of Toni Morrison and other social theorists and literary critics who in recent years have begun to turn the gaze of race theory toward the construction of white identity. A brief examination of their contributions to the field may help us to understand better Nordan's novel. In Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination, Morrison describes her project as "an effort to avert the critical gaze from the racial object to the racial subject, from the described and imagined to the describers and imaginers" and to "examine the impact of notions of racial hierarchy, racial exclusion, and racial vulnerability on nonblacks who held, resisted, explored, or altered those notions". Morrison proposes not to treat whiteness in American literature as natural and self-sustaining but rather as something "sycophantic", constructed, contingent on an Africanist presence. She hopes to refute the conventional wisdom that "because American literature has been clearly the preserve of white male views, genius, and power, those views, genius, and power are without relationship to and removed from the overwhelming presence of black people in the United States". Many other literary critics have taken up Morrison's cause and have reexamined the American literary canon with a different gaze. Jerry Phillips discusses how "certain literary texts illuminate the pedagogy of whiteness, the way one learns to experience oneself as a member of the 'white race'" and goes on to discuss a few of the "countless ways in which United States literary works aided in the naturalization of whiteness". Phillips argues that "we critics should commit ourselves to illuminating issues of contingency, historicity, and arbitrariness" in the construction of whiteness. Rebecca Aanerud calls for "the development of a critical reading practice that foregrounds the construction and representation of whiteness and will challenge the way in which many texts by white United States authors are complicit with the discourses of white supremacy". She further argues that "Whiteness, like race in general, cannot be understood simply as a natural phenomenon [...]. The recognition of whiteness as not a set fact--that is, having white skin--but instead as a product whose meaning and status must be sustained by a process of reproduction along pre-established lines is crucial to an interruption of whiteness as the status quo". Phillips and Aanerud also lay the burden of deconstructing and decentering whiteness at the feet of literary

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

An inconvenient truth (Movie report) Movie Review

An inconvenient truth ( report) - Movie Review Example Some men heeded Marsh’s call and forest reserves were established soon after. Meanwhile, John Muir, founder of the Sierra Club helped in the establishment of the Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Park because he believed that all living things had a part to play in the subsistence of the whole world, and must be preserved because they exist. From these early efforts sprung worldwide environmental organizations calling for a more ethical use of the earth’s resources. By 1972, out of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, the Stockholm Declaration was born The Declaration recognized man as both a â€Å"creature and molder† of his environment, acknowledged the role of the environment in the sustainability of mankind, and mandated man to protect his environment (United Nations Conference on the Human Environment). It demanded accountability in all citizens and communities, enterprises and institutions to shape the future of the environment. From the early awareness of the importance of nature to man’s survival came an understanding that the Earth is a living being. In 2010, the Earth Declaration (World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth) afforded Mother Earth with equal rights as humans. It was perhaps the first document to compel nations to reco gnize the interdependence of life on the planet and that â€Å"in an interdependent living community it is not possible to recognize the rights of only human beings without causing an imbalance within Mother Earth† (World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth). I mention these developments in the environmental movement because I wish to believe that climate change will not end the world, instead, it will help man discover who he truly is. George Mash once said, The fact that, of all organic beings, man alone is to be regarded as essentially a destructive power, and that he wields energies to resist which,

Monday, September 23, 2019

A personal experience on a vaction trip to paris,france Essay

A personal experience on a vaction trip to paris,france - Essay Example I was really excited to see the Eiffel Tower because I had read many stories about it. â€Å"The Eiffel Tower is the symbol of Paris and likely the most recognizable landmark of the city. It was built by Gustave Eiffel for the World Exhibition of 1889 and it was never meant to be a permanent addition to the citys skyline. Initially, the artists and writers of Paris expressed their strong disapproval regarding to the tower, but later generations commended it. The figures are impressive (like the fact that it weighs 7000 tons) but forget about them and try to enjoy the sight.† (Places to Visit in France) After visiting the Eiffel Tower I wanted to see Sainte-Chapelle. Many people believe that it is the gateway to heaven, I have read so many true stories about the uniqueness of this church, it sounded so special, and I decided that I had to see it for myself. I was very impressed, the church was exceptionally beautiful, I had seen many churches earlier in my life but, indubitably, this one was special and really beautiful. After visiting the beautiful church I headed towards the museum in Paris. This was on the top of my must see places so I headed straight towards fulfilling my wish. The museum had a great collection; it had some rare coins, transcripts and so on. These things were very rare and this was, perhaps, why they were locked inside a museum. The entry inside the museum was not free, but it was not too expensive and going to the museum in France was a one of kind experience. Notre Dame Cathedral was my next destination. This cathedral is very famous for its gothic architecture and this is exactly why I decided to see it and it was certainly not a letdown. This cathedral is located in the heart of the city and several tourists visit it day in, day out. I decided to relax; and what is a better place to relax than the Luxembourg Gardens? Several tourists go to these gardens regularly in order to relax and find

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Controversy Of Genetic Testing Essay Example for Free

The Controversy Of Genetic Testing Essay The issue of genetic engineering and testing has become one of the most contentious issues in our contemporary society. The debate is battled over by credentialed scientists on both sides and the likelihood is very high that it will continue. Most of the pro genetic testing advocates claim that since it is a technological and scientific process, genetic testing governmental regulation and evaluation should be purely based on objective and scientific criteria. Â  Genetic testing opponents argue that there should be more science (or rather further advancement) especially on environmental and human studies in order to have such a purely perceived scientific evaluation of genetic testing. The contradiction brought about by such pure scientific assessment of genetic testing is the fact that it ignores the varied and differentiated religious, cultural, and ethical dimensions of different individuals that must be considered (Coates, Mahaffies, Hines, 1997, 13). Thus, genetic testing is not an isolated technology but rather one that employs a wide range of methods that will eventually gauge the absence, activity or presence of defective genes in cells. Its costs ranges from as less than $50 for simpler screenings like sickle cell anemia blood screens to the $10,000’s bracket for more complicated screens such as the pre-implantation genetic investigation for diseases like the Tay Sachs. Many individuals tend to prefer genetic testing when it happens that their families have shown some symptoms, which, given an early diagnosis, can substantially be improved. They may also consider it if they wish to pass on some desired genetic traits to their progeny. It goes without saying that the potential that genetic testing has for humankind in all societies is quite paramount. The most significant is the fact that genetic testing has a capability of lengthening and improving the quality of human life. When used and administered in the most appropriate ethical standards, genetic testing will/can eventually eliminate many unforeseen distresses and suffering. However, a number of issues including discrimination, social engineering, consent, equity, and privacy pose as potential hindrances that have been confronted by many people so far. There have been some personal family and legal conflicts which have arisen as a result of individual and/immediate relatives testing (Coates, Mahaffie, Hines, 1997, 17). Considering the issue of privacy for example, there has been many doubts whether insurance firms and potential employers for example, should access a person’s genetic records. There have been proposals that only genetic researchers should in their attempt to come up with more promising technologies that will ensure improvement and longevity of human life. This possibility of other unauthorized individuals or groups being informed of such genetic statuses is viewed by many as an incriminating genetic privacy deficiency. Moreover, genes are shared among parents and siblings, and as such, many wonder if there is a moral obligation for a person to disclose the information to people who could be potentially affected. Other issues that have brought additional controversy related to genetic testing include possible offensive discrimination of those found with defective genetic composition. This mainly happens in insurance related processes among others such as foster parenting or adoption. (Coates, Mahaffie, Hines, 1997, 22) Equality in availability of genetic testing to all is yet another worrying factor. Some people have thought that the rich might well be able to alienate themselves from all forms of genetically oriented complications because they can relatively afford the staggering costs as compared to the less fortunate. This has however, been addressed by appropriate regulatory measures that ensure there is no unnecessary skyrocketing of genetic testing costs. In conclusion, I’d say that no matter what the magnitude of opposition towards the issues revolving genetic testing, it is fundamental to appreciate one fact that the bottom line of all the debates will always depend heavily on the eminent advantages that this scientific advancement has brought to humanity. All we are required to do now is to streamline a few bends and we will soon be one army against a common enemy, ignorance of the benefits awaiting mankind after perfecting the methods and procedures involved. Most of these controversial issues can comfortably be prevented if we all make concerted efforts to understand the legal and social policies, national and state legislation as well as the health care reforms that will prevent disillusion about genetic testing. The gifts to be achieved by treating devastating inherited diseases out rightly outweigh the societal risks involved. Work cited: Coates Joseph, Mahaffie John Hines Andy. The Promise of Genetics. The Futurist, Vol.31, September, 1997, pp. 13, 17, 22

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Child And Youth Care Work

Child And Youth Care Work Introduction The profession of child and youth care requires a great amount of effort, determination and skill. Within the field, child and youth care workers are expected to acquire and uphold a trusting bond with the youth involved (Quinn, 2004: 18). Although the main aim of the child and youth care worker is to care for, love, and protect the child, this may prove difficult in many circumstances. Therefore, the youth care worker needs to have acquired skills in order to overcome these challenges while still succeeding in building a strong relationship with the child involved. This essay will discuss the elements of child and youth care work as well as the expectations of child and youth care workers. In particular, it will focus on the skills needed within the profession and the difficulties faced when trying to care for children and youth. Elements of Child and Youth Care Maier (1987) describes the core elements of child and youth care work as providing children with physical comfort, knowing the different temperaments of each child, rhythmic interactions with children, predictability, dependability and also behavioural training. When practicing within the field of child and youth care, the worker is required to have an understanding of these elements in order to do their work to the best of their ability. More specifically, the elements of child and youth care includes fulfilling the physical and privacy needs of the children and also knowing the differences in their temperaments, in other words, knowing the differences in their personalities and attitudes. Also, the child care worker needs to make time for rhythmic interactions with the patient so that they can both have an experience of closeness .e.g. singing or dancing (Maier, 1987). Children have a strong need for predictability, and rhythmic interactions also play a role in this. â€Å"Rhythmic activities seem to confirm the experience of repetition and continuity of repetition† which, as a result, provides the child with a feeling of lasting commitment and predictability. Children and youth need to know that they have a reliable adult to depend on. Lastly, child and youth care workers need to add in a personal element to the behavioural training of their patients. Children generally learn quicker from those who have meaning to them and therefore will learn more readily from their care-giver once care has been established (Maier, 1987). Expectations and Skills Required The main role of a child and youth care worker is to work with children and youth in ways that are educative, participative and empowering. The worker is expected to encourage equality of opportunity and social inclusion amongst the children that they are working with (Pittman, 2004: 90). Communication plays an important role within the profession of child and youth care. Workers are required to create and maintain relationships of trust with the children and youth involved and should deliver information so that it is received in the manner intended. Child and youth care workers need to communicate well and convey and explain information assertively and â€Å"in language of the community† (Quinn, 2004: 18). Child and youth care workers are also expected to implement programmes which aid the children and youth in their growth, learning and development. In order to do this, workers are required to have knowledge on group work and should know how to assist groups in times of need. Child and youth care workers should continuously be planning and implementing new activities for children to participate in. While doing this, the patients should be motivated and encouraged to engage in these activities (Quinn, 2004: 18). In order to show respect for the family of the child and the community in which they reside, it is vital that the worker gains an understanding of the family culture and structures (Quinn, 2004: 19). This will allow workers to deal with conflicts easier as they will then be more sensitive when holding discussions on certain topics and will thus be-able to create relevant strategies in order to satisfy the childs needs. Child and youth care workers should show a high level of understanding of children and should be able to â€Å"recognise need for intervention† so that they can help with the childs problem with immediacy. Difficulties in the Field Providing good child care means â€Å"providing children with authoritative control and giving them responsive nurturance† (Cancian, 2002:65). However, it may be difficult to carry out good child care effectively at times. Difficulties in the field may include communication problems like not being sensitive or authoritative enough. Being in the profession involves a lot of stress as it is a challenge to care for children and youth and to achieve a professional image amongst society for the child and youth care profession. It is also challenging in the fact that it requires us to be flexible in changes that may occur. Child and youth care workers need to be willing to grow and learn from good and bad experiences in the profession and thus prevent certain bad aspects from occurring in the future, which may prove difficult for people who do not like change and who dont take bad experience and criticism lightly. Conclusion It is concluded that the child and youth care profession involves providing children with basic and essential needs such as love, care and protection. Child care workers need to communicate effectively with the children in order to efficiently help with their problems and establish a trusting relationship with their patients so that proper care can be given. However, the profession does provide a few challenges but none which cannot be overcome with time and more experience in the field of child and youth care. References Cancian, F.M. (ed). 2002. ‘Defining â€Å"Good† Child Care: Hegemonic and Democratic Standards, Child Care and Inequality: Rethinking carework for children and youth. Great Britain: Routledge. p.65. Maier, H.W. (1987). ‘Essential Components in Care and Treatment Environments for Children, Developmental Group Care of Children and Youth: Concepts and Practice, USA: The Haworth Press, Inc. p.40-58. Pittman, K.J. (2004). ‘Reflections on the road not (yet) taken: How a centralized public strategy can help youth work focus on youth, (In Garza, P., Borden, L.M., Astroth, K.A. (eds.), New Directions for Youth Development: Professional Development for Youth Workers, 104: 90, Winter. Quinn, J. (2004). ‘Professional development in the youth development field: Issues, trends, opportunities, and challenges, (In Garza, P., Borden, L.M., Astroth, K.A. (eds.), New Directions for Youth Development: Professional Development for Youth Workers, 18-19, Winter.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Consumer Awareness Towards Green Technology Information Technology Essay

Consumer Awareness Towards Green Technology Information Technology Essay Going green is all about being friendly to nature and resources in the world that beneficial the society and the world. Green technology also known as clean technology is something new in the globe which refers to the application of knowledge for practical to be used in a way that conserves natural resources and the environment. The thing that usually being used, cars driven on the road, clothing and grocery bags being changed to environment friendly item is a way of going green. Going green can also mean changing the business papers to recycled papers in a firm or maybe alternative power sources used in home. Green economy is not only about the color. It is indeed beneficial for the economy and its society. Technology and innovation are viewed as key drivers in the move towards a greener, low-carbon economy. Indeed, many governments see the application of green manufacturing technologies in the pursuit of eco-innovations as the cornerstone of their policies for economic growth more generally (Dean Bartlett, 2009; Anna Trifilova, 2009). Without innovation, there are no improvements. Green technology encompasses a continuously innovation and evolving of materials and methods to generate energy to non-toxic cleaning products. It is the future to the society to find ways to produce technology that do not damage or deplete the Earths natural resources. One major area of green economy is how society allocates the resources and how to create a sustainable economy. Malaysia is one of the first Asian countries to have a serious interest and effort towards mitigating the negative effect of human beings activities on the environment by releasing a law in 1974. There are several laws that regulate the environmental management of chemical substances in different area such as the Environmental Quality Act 1974. The Environmental Quality Act, 1974 is related to the control of chemical substances in air and hazardous wastes. (Razman, M.R., A. Azlan, J.M. Jahi, K. Arifin, K. Aiyub, A. Awang and Z.M. Lukman, 2010. Urban sustainability and Malaysian laws on environmental management of chemical substances. Res. J. Applied Sci., 5: 172-176.) The idea was continually active since the third Malaysian plan until the ninth plan. We need to go green. The citizen have to provide enough incentives for private and public sectors to invest in green technology. For a start, the government recently approved that the Prime Ministers Office must be a green building. Tha t would set as a benchmark. That has already been decided by the cabinet and is being implemented says Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak in his closing remarks at the 2011 Budget consultation meeting. (The Star, July 2010) Background of study The research is conducted to clear everyones doubt and to create awareness of the importance of green technology. Firms are chasing over the constantly changing world. Green technology has been a trend in order to gain competitive advantage and to perform social responsibility. The paradigm shift in the global arena towards a green economy and low carbon growth or known as green techno economic paradigm is developed by Freeman (1992), Kemp (1994), Speth (1989). Green technology has been implemented in other countries since some time ago but it is not popular among society. Government and non-governmental organization (NGO) had taken much action to implement green technology into society and daily life. Study had been done by researcher to prove the benefits but the problem is the behavior of consumer. One behavior identified by Laroche et al. (2001) that affects consumer willingness to pay more for green products is the consideration of environmental issues when making purchase decisions. Individuals that have egoistic value orientation will only consider costs and benefits of the product to themselves and vice versa, individuals with a social-altruistic value orientation will view the ecosystem as a whole and base their green consumer decision on benefits for other people and environment. Mentality of the consumer is the major question to the manufacturer. Products must be cheap and within the budget of the consumer in order to pursue them to purchase. However, going green might add a little cost to the process, so the product will definitely be slightly higher than the normal products. Besides that, the main reason to apply green technology in life is due to the capacity to endure the biological systems to remain diverse and productive over time. Sustainability is therefore not only the need to respect the bottom line of the three Ps planet, people and profit (Kleindorfer et al., 2005) but to remain the long-lived and healthy wetlands and natural resources of Mother Nature. Enabling sustainability is allowing the Earth to continue supporting the human life. The 3R slogan Reduce, Reuse and Recycle has been implemented for some time but is not practiced by society. Researcher has also proven that green technology not only helps to reduce environmental issues, it does bring a positive economic effect to a country too. Many governments see the application of green manufacturing technologies in the pursuit of eco-innovations as the cornerstone of their policies for economic growth more generally (Defra, 2008). Green investments have a dual positive economic effect on aggregate supply and demand. The recent Green Economic reported by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) shows that a strategy of reallocating investments towards the green economy may lead to slower potential economic growth for a few years, as renewable natural resources are replenished, but will result in the long run in faster economic growth. Investments in the green economy will result in the long term and increased employment, as green investments are generally more employment intensive, and have direct benefits in terms of poverty reduction. Next, Malaysias government had launched the RM1.5 billion Green Technology Financing Scheme (GTFS) on 26th January 2010 (The Star, July 2010). This move is intended to attract the private sector to participate in Green Technology entrepreneurship. It is hoped that this fund will be able to facilitate and fast track efforts by companies that are now pursuing green technology businesses. Having provided the catalyst for green businesses to grow in the country, we envisage the initiatives that the government had implemented so far will generate impressive economic multiplier effects. One of the most important aspects on the move towards a green economy and sustainable development is the usage of green energy or more commonly known as Renewable Energy (RE). Whilst conventional fuel such as oil, gas and coal are the dominant fuels in the world today, the use of these conventional fuels release huge amounts of green house gases which are the main contributors to climate change and global warming, an issue that has been debated around the world. Our non-renewable resources are finite and, eventually, will deplete if no new sources are discovered and developed. Therefore, apart from the global warming, the awareness on the importance of conserving and managing our natural resources in a judicious manner is very important. The importance of the renewable energy sector in Malaysia has been recognized since the Eighth Malaysia Plan, i.e., from year 2000 when the Five Fuel Policy was introduced. The indigenous RE sources that have been identified are biomass, biogas, and mini hydro and solar to generate electricity, apart from oil, coal and gas. Moving forward, the Government has approved the Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan which will be implemented by Malaysia Ministry in year 2011. This new policy is expected to enhance the utilization of RE resources in order to contribute towards supply security and sustainable development in the energy sector. In the building sector, green builders now have a competitive advantage over traditional builders. Research Problem Malaysia is currently in a critical period moving towards a developed nation. In order to achieve and get through this period, the Malaysian government is taking bold steps to manage the looming environmental challenges and issues which we face and will face if no action is taken. In fact, Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water is formed by the government in Malaysia. The ministry of green technology outlined 4 key factors to be addressed i.e. the energy, building, water and waste management and the transportation sector. The Malaysian Green Building Index (GBI), a rating tool that was launched in early 2009, provides an opportunity for developers and building owners to design and construct green, sustainable buildings that can provide energy and water saving whilst providing a healthier indoor environment. However, government is still facing problem with the society and the thinking of Malaysian which are left out behind because of the mentality not to evolve and remain comfortable in the current position without noticing the danger. People who are already involved in the green building market are ahead of the masses. This advantage will continue to grow and energy-efficient building practices will soon become the norm. Sustainable and low-carbon provision of housing and office-space will play a key role in fighting climate change. The problem in Malaysia is the low level of awareness in consumer. They are not willing to take another step ahead to make the green technology happen. Without realizing the benefits and advantages in using green technology, consumers are indirectly polluting the world and environment every day. What are the factors that affect the level of consumer awareness towards green technology in Malaysia? Research Objective This study is an attempt to gain further information towards consumer awareness towards green technology in Malaysia. Green technology is not popular in Malaysia compared to other countries. Listed below are the objectives of this research: To determine the factors that affecting consumer awareness towards green technology In curiosity to identify what are the main components or criteria that affect consumers awareness towards green technology in Malaysia, journals of the past researchers has been viewed. The background of the research and the effort put into implementing green technology has been identified and the major factors are known. To identify the level of awareness among consumer towards green technology Different people from different backgrounds may have different perceptions on a product. In addition to that, different demographic groups may have different perceptions to the green product and normal goods. The research can identify and find out the level of awareness of consumer towards green technology in Malaysia. To identify the relationship between all the variables (technology innovation, ecological aspect, business strategy, and value, beliefs, norm) with consumer awareness towards green technology It is difficult to predict the consumer minds and their preferences towards a product. Several researches had been conducted to understand consumer, the way they behave and what are the factor that causes them react towards a product. Leading factors such as price and quality are always the top concerns to the consumers. Partial of the consumers may focus on low prices goods while neglecting the quality and benefit of the product in long term. Thus, they will neglect the latest knowledge and technology advancement that are used in manufacturing or in operating the product. Besides that, the business strategy used in a firm does affects the consumer awareness level. The promotion and marketing skills in creating an impact in the consumer is very important. Lastly, the level of awareness about green technology in a consumer is affected by the trend, culture, belief or norms they lived in. To identify the barrier of implementing green technology There are still some difficulties to persuade the society to use green technology in their daily life. This research can identify what are the factors that become the barrier in achieving a green world. Based on the result of the findings, the authority will know where to take action on to ensure consumers are aware and practice green habits. Justifications of Research Technology innovation There is always space to improve. Innovation is imperative for human and society to keep moving forward. Innovation is about knowledge and creating new possibilities through combining different knowledge sets. Knowledge could be based on our experienced, process of search into technologies, markets and competitor actions. Knowledge could exist in explicit form; be accessed, discussed, transferred or in tacit form; known about but not actually put into words or formulae. Consumers as one of factor that allows technology innovation should be aware of the advancement. Ecological aspect As a consumer, we must always think of mother Earth as we are only borrowing the land from the creator. Consumer should aware of technology that can help reduce pollution or harm to the world. The best way is to keep up with the latest news and catch up with the current issues. Consumers should practice high social responsibility when purchasing or using a product. Business Strategy Some firms and organizations practice green technology due to the function as a business strategy. Since the government already set the mission and vision for the country, the only thing for the firms to do is implement a green way of doing business. Based on the SWOT analysis; strength, weakness, opportunities and threats, firms need to follow the trend and take and extra step to gain competitive advantage in the particular industry. For example, some shopping complexes practice No Plastic Bag Day on every Saturday. Besides going green, the firm can reduce the amount of cost. Value, beliefs, norms Several researchers have argued that green consumer behavior is determined by a multitude of factors depending on type of behavior and involvement with the product and behavior (Black et al., 1985; Cleveland et al., 2005; Roberts and Bacon, 1997). Consumer purchases the product they used in daily life due to the culture and environment they lived in. It is a long term thing; if a child is brought up to practice recycling, he will continue doing so until he is a grown man. Stern (2000) presents four categories of determinants of green consumer behaviors: contextual forces, attitudinal factors, habits or routines and personal capabilities. Besides that, green technology will be applied in daily life when consumer belief in the value of doing so. If only the consumer have the knowledge and understanding of green technology, they will definitely practice a green lifestyle and influence others to do so. The values most strongly related to activating pro-environmental personal norms and th us influencing green behaviors have been found to be social-altruistic, biospheric and egoistic values (de Groot and Steg, 2008; Hansla et al., 2008; Stern et al., 1999). Significance of the Study Consumers preferences and their behavior can bring a huge impact to the country economy. The demographic data in this research will provide us the study of personal data of consumers. The demographic characteristics which consist of race, age, gender, education level and income are crucial for the marketing department in a firm. Thus, the study on the demographic characteristics of consumers will help to discover which groups of consumers are aware of green technology in Malaysia. Through this research, companies will notice about which aspects the consumer concern most. Firms are able to understand their valued consumers more to take the next action in help the government implement a green world. Scope of the Study Due to the advancement of technology and the changing lifestyle, green technology has been implemented to save the environment. Everyone is encouraged to use green products in their daily life. The problem here is the low level of awareness among consumer on how important green technology really brings to the world. For this research, Malaysian has been the target of research. Primary data is used to analysis the results. Data will be collected through questionnaires that are distributed to different group of people. Through this method, the data collected would have a wider range of people in Malaysia. The more data collected the higher reliability of the results. Closed questions are used in the questionnaire to avoid sensitive issue and quicker for respondents to answer. Besides that, answers are easier to code and statically analyze. Besides that, secondary data from journals and past researchers are used to help in this finding. Organization of Report Chapter 1 : Introduction In the first chapter of the research, it would always be the main introduction and the background of this research. The topics included in this chapter would be the objectives of the research. These sections will briefly explain the factors that affect consumer awareness towards green technology in Malaysia. Finally, the justification of the research will help to justify the variables that are involved in this research. Chapter 2 : Literature Review A specific study will be conducted on the dependent variable and independent variables. The main purpose for this chapter is to weigh the pros and cons of the topic and to discuss in details on the ideas and knowledge concerned. In this chapter, every definition of the dependent variable and independent variables will be cited from the journals in order to strengthen every point mentioned. Several of arguments and various points of views from different authors in order to provide a stronger formation of each point can be found in this chapter. Chapter 3 : Research Methodology Research methodology is usually conducted after the study of literature review. In this chapter, a theoretical framework will be formed to illustrate the relationships between the dependent variable and the independent variables. Hypotheses or a proposed explanation which were made on the basis of limited evidences will explain the relationships between two or more variables. All the hypotheses stated will be tested together with empirical data. This chapter also includes the description of the sampling data, data collections and as well as the development of the questionnaire for this research. Chapter 4 : Data Analysis After questionnaires are collected from all the respondents, a few tests will be conducted to test on the reliability of the results. The responds of the questionnaires from the respondents are represented by a set of numbers that symbolize their own significant meanings. Whereas the tests that will be carry out are to analyze the responses from the respondents so that it will derive to a stronger conclusion at the end of this research. Chapter 5 : Conclusion This chapter will provide the final outcome of this research. Thus, the final results will be explained and we will be able to identify how the exact hypotheses that formed earlier are hold.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Occupational Stress Essay -- essays research papers fc

Occupational Stress Opening Statement: This paper will examine some causes and some of the effects of stress on individuals in the work environment. Role overload will be discussed as a major agent of stress at both work and home. Role Underload, Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity will be discussed briefly for comparison. Examples of stress in the work place will be used to illustrate the broad ramifications of stress in the occupational setting. Examples of Electromyography (EMG) will be given as a means of biologically diagnosing occupational and personnal stress cases as opposed to occupational soft muscle tissue diseases. Finally, interventions such as stress management programs will also be explored, as well as the benefits such programs can deliver to an organization. What is Stress?: "Stress - The confusion created when one's mind overrides the body's basic desire to choke the hell out of someone who so desperately deserves it" (Author unknown). There are many biologic al, engineering and physiological definitions of stress but, the definition above is the most simplified and applicable in today's fast moving business world. More classical "engineering" definition cited by R. Kahn (1992) use during the 18th and 19th centuries described stress as "A force or pressure exerted upon a material object, or person". Stress as defined by Quick, Horn and Quick (1987) "is a naturally occurring experience essential to our growth, change development both at work and at home. Depending on the way stress is handled it may have a detrimental effect on our health and well-being or it may have a beneficial effect". In order to have stress there must be a stressor, or a physical or physiological stimulus to encourage the onset of stress response. A physical stressor in a manufacturing setting may be noise, heat, dust, mist, fumes, poor lighting etc (Evans, Cohen 1987). Psychological stressors could be items such as conflicting views wi th your manager or, seemingly unattainable deadlines. Problems at home may compound these issues when they are presented in an occupational situation. Stress may be caused by many different situations in the various environments that we are a part of each day. Some social stress factors may be measured by Life Crisis Units (LCU) (Holmes and Rahe, 1967). This scale is used to aid in evaluation of, but n... ...ournal of Organizational Behavior Jan vol 12, 39-53 Golembiewski, Robert & Munzenrider Robert (1991) Burnout and Mental Health: A Pilot Study Organizational Development Journal, Sum Vol 9, 51-57 Heirch, Max (1989) Making Stress Management Relevant to worksite wellness Advances Spr Vol 6, 36-40 Hendrix William H; Steel Robert P & Schultz Sherryl A (1987) Job Stress and Life Stress Journal of Social Behavior & Personality Aug Vol 2, 291-302 Klintzman Susan; House James s; Israel Barbara A & Mero Richard P (1990) Work Stress, Non-work Stress & Health Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Jun Vol 13, 221-243 Murphy L R; Dubois David & Hurrel, Joseph (1986) Accident Reduction Through Stress Management Journal of Business and Psychology Fall Volume 1, 5-18 Newsweek Publication Business Section (1988) Newsweek April 25, 42-45 Penton Publication Workers' Comp Update (1992) Occupational Hazards, Oct, 173-178 Quick, Jonathan D; Hoin Rebecca S & Quick, James (1986) Hea lth Consequences of Stress Journal of Organizational Behavior Management Fal-Win Vol 8, 19-36 Electronic Media National Council on Compensation Insurance, Inc. Available

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Battle Continues When Soldiers Return from Iraq Essay -- Mental Il

The Battle Continues When Soldiers Return from Iraq Even though Jimmy Massey, a former U.S. solider in Iraq, was pulled out of the war almost two years ago, it remains at the center of his life. On May 15, 2003 Massey was flown back stateside and though he lives a life without bullets and tanks, he now fights off terrible nightmares, constant anxiety, and bouts of depression. Massey, 34, was a marine for almost 12 years before he was deployed to Iraq during the initial U.S. invasion. There he witnessed the shooting of more than 30 innocent civilians and his thoughts of war transformed forever. Massey was honorably discharged from the military with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and suffered major depression. Despite being called a coward by his superiors Massey, with the help of his wife Jackie, sought the mental health treatment he needed. The Massey’s search for assistance proved not to be a simple task. â€Å"At first all he did was see therapists. It took us about six months to get him set up through the Veterans Administration to get his medicine and start therapy. There is such a huge waiting list that he doesn't get to go to therapy as often as he would like but I guess at this point something is better than nothing,† his wife, Jackie said. There have been times when the Massey’s feel they are fighting an uphill battle with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Because there is no cure for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Massey will likely be in need of treatment for all his life. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental illness that develops after a person experiences a horrific or traumatic event. More specifically, the term Combat PTSD was developed after Vietnam, even though the condition h... ...holism and PTSD go hand in hand and the VA Hospital made a terrible mistake that day,† Lessin said. MFSO never want a situation like Jeffery Lucey’s to occur again. Through working with organizations like MFSO and educating people about PTSD, people like the Massey’s hope the system can make progress within the system. Jackie Massey believes the blame should not only lie on the VA Hospital, but on the huge lack of funding and lack of staff. The VA reported that in 2003 almost 200,000 veterans were on waiting lists to receive health care. â€Å"I am working right now to make some changes. I want to have a database of therapists and doctors who will offer their services to returning soldiers for free or reduced costs so that these men and women can receive treatment outside the military. I think that is a very important key in the whole process,† Jackie Massey said.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Has the lottery replaced the government in the funding of education Essay

The overarching aims of education underlie the construction of the curriculum and funding. Education, in the broader sense, aims to develop the individual, to enlarge a child’s knowledge, experience and imaginative understanding, and thus his awareness of moral values and capacity for enjoyment and also to enable the child to take his place in society. The school education on the other hand, has the aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and achieve, to promote spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and to prepare pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life. Consider the school of the late 20th century. It has not changed a whole lot in the last fifty years or so. Isolated from the rest of the world except for one or two school-business partnerships. Working at the edges of the school, these partnerships attempt to provide students with some insight into the working world or give some marginal discretionary resources for the principal to use. The resources are used on one of a multitude of unrelated programs that the school has set up to cope with the problems that society has dumped on the school. The school itself has created barriers that shelter and isolate it from the work of the world that goes on around it. The technological innovations that are pervasive in the business world have yet to penetrate the classrooms except for a single computer in each classroom that the teacher barely knows how to use. Few business people, even the partners, ever come to school; those who do are shocked by the conditions they find and by the discipline problems with which teachers must contend. Still they are comforted by the fact that school feels pretty much like it did when they went to school. On the other hand, the quality of services on a university campus is one thing; to measure the quality of manufactured goods is another matter. Chubb, J. and Moe, T. takes this further and says that â€Å"a service †¦ cannot be objectively measured. † Such frustration stems from the difference between services and goods. For example, educational services are intangible and cannot be packaged, displayed or inspected fully by prospective students. Services also have a perishability problem because they cannot be stored for future delivery: when students cut class, the professor’s time is wasted. Unlike goods, services are difficult to separate from their provider: an academic course is as fascinating or as boring as the professor. There is also a lot of variability in services. For example, the mood of the professor could impinge on his or her tolerance for chatting in class. Services are difficult to standardize. Unlike manufactured goods, services are not as susceptible to strict quality control. With regards to these needs in education, more states are actually looking for fund in order to pursue educational development. Out of 42 states that uses lottery, 24 of it uses the proceeds for school financing aside from the support of the government. In line with this research, the data that describes the 2005 and 2006 development of schools in each state considered. Basically, this paper attempts to identify if the massive lottery practices in each states promotes educational development in terms of funding. The Report  From the previous discussion, The Chicago Reporter found out that the lottery does not supplement school funding, even though the proceeds goes directly the state’s Common School Fund. On the other hand, the South Carolina Education Lottery was approved by constitutional referendum in 2000, and implemented shortly thereafter. In contrast to other education lotteries, the legislation establishing the lottery contains substantive measures to ensure that lottery revenues supplement, rather than replace, general fund tax revenues earmarked for education. Aside from this, the involvement of lottery in funding the schools’ needs show a good advantage as California Performance Review supported the option. California lottery players, retailers and, most importantly, its public schools, all stand to gain from changing state laws that restrict the lottery’s ability to increase sales. These changes are not only consistent with the mandated purpose of The Lottery Act as approved by the voters, they represent the only risk-free way to ensure that lottery dollars to education will not actually decrease. In line with this, this paper will evaluate and compare the current development in 46 states in which 24 of it uses the proceeds of lottery to education while the other 22 only uses the support of the government. The Method To determine the current performance of schools in 46 states, the researcher compares the amount of budget between states w/ lottery proceeds used in school funding and states w/o lottery proceeds used in school funding. To determine the difference of budget between these states and the status of development in each school, the researcher conducted an analysis from the data obtained in these 46 states (The distribution of data is shown in the Appendix A) using t-test procedures. From 24 schools that are currently using lottery proceeds, the analysis of their education budget was also compared to their previous years in which lottery proceeds is not being considered (see Appendix B). The use of its mean and coefficient of variation are performed for evaluation of budget.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Lope de Vega

Lope de Vega (full name Felix Arturo Lope de Vega y Carpio) was well known throughout the world as The Phoenix of Spain. He lived his life to become one of the most important playwrights and poets of the Spanish Golden Century Baroque. Born in Madrid on November 25th 1562, he started showing his enormous talent for writing at an early age. During his lifetime he wrote over 1800 comedia pieces and hundreds shorter dramatic pieces of which around 500 were published. Lope de Vega transformed the Spanish theatre and took it to its greater limits.He died on August 27th 1635 and to this day his work remains popular all over the world. At the age of five, Lope was already showing signs of a genius in the making. He was reading and speaking fluent Spanish and Latin and by the age of 12 he had written his first play. Today, over 80 of his plays are considered masterpieces. When Lope was fourteen, he was enrolled in a Jesuit school in Madrid and studied at the University of Alcala. After his g raduation he wanted to follow the footsteps of his patron, Bishop of Avila and become a priest, but his love for women was too great and he realized that the life of celibacy was not his style.In 1583 he joined the military and was a part of the Spanish Navy. After his return to Madrid, Lope officially began his life as a playwright. Here he fell in love with a daughter of a theatre owner, Elena Osorio. She soon left him for another man and Lope started a vitriolic attack on her and her family. Because of this, he got thrown into jail, and soon after was banished from the court for eight years and two years from Castile. In the company of a 16-year-old Isabel de Urbina he went into exile. De Vega was forced to marry her after this.After being married for only a few weeks, Lope went back to serving his country with the Navy. In 1588 the Invincible Armada sailed against England and Lope’s ship was one of the few that returned unharmed. Upon his return he settled in Valencia wor king as a dramatist. In 1950 he served as the secretary of the Duke of Alba, and because of this he relocated to Toledo. Five years later Isabel died, and since his eight years of banishment have passed, he left Toledo and moved back to Madrid. Here he found more love affairs and more scandals.He also had four children with Micaela de Lujan. Micaela was his inspiration for a rich series of sonnets. In 1594 he wrote a well-known play called El maestro de danzar, otherwise known as The Dancing Master. Yet in 1598 he married yet again, a daughter of a very wealthy butcher. Still his affairs with other women and Micaela continued. In this year he wrote La Arcadia, a pastoral romance which to this day is one of the poet’s most wearisome productions. Also, he wrote La Dragontea, a history in verse of Sir Francis Drake’s last expedition and death.A year later he wrote a narrative life of Saint Isidore , the patron saint of Madrid, composed in octosyllabolic quintillas, called El Isidro. In 1580s and 1590s his moorish and pastoral themed poems were extremely popular, partly because they were a reflection of Lope’s own affairs and the characters has a lot in common with Lope and his life at the time, his numerous love affairs. In 1602 alone he published two hundred sonnets and in 1604 he republished them with new material in his Rimas. In the 17th century Lope de Vega’s literary output reached his peak. He wrote La La Hermosura de Angelica, a set of three books, in 1602.He was truly one of the greatest poets of his time. After that decade however, lopes life took a turn for the worse. Lope lost his son, his wife and at this point Micaela disappears as well. He gathered all of his children and moved them under the same roof. His writing in the early 1600’s was full of heavier religious influences and finally, in 1614 he joined the priesthood. In 1614 his religious sonnets were published in a book called Rimas sacras, which once again b ecame a bestseller. In 1627 he wrote the first Spanish opera titled La selva sin amor or The Lovelorn Forest.Even though he was now a priest, he still continued to have affairs with many women. During this time one of his most notable and long relationships was with Martha de Nevared, who he stayed with until her death in 1632. In 1934 he published a third book Rimas humanas y divinas del licenciado Tome de Burguillos which was considered his masterpiece and the most modern poem book of the 17th century. In 1635, tragedy struck again when lope lost another son and his youngest daughter was abducted off the coast of Venezuela. Lope de Vega was infected with scarlet fever and died later that year, in Madrid, on August 27th.In his life’s work, Lope de Vega broke the neoclassical three unities (place, time and action). He showed that he knew the established rules of poetry, but excused himself from them stating that a â€Å"vulgar† Spaniard cares nothing about them. He wro te so his readers could easily relate and understand him, he stood as a defender of the common language of ordinary life. Unfortunately, the books he read, his literary connections, and his fear of Italian criticism all exercised an influence upon his naturally robust spirit and, like so many others he caught the prevalent contagion of mannerism and of pompous phraseology.Lope’s own records indicate that by 1604 he had composed, in round numbers, as many as 230 three-act plays, comedias. This figure rose to 1500 by 1632. Montalban, in Fama Postuma (1636) make a total of 1800 comedias and more than 400 shorter sacramental plays. Many of these pieces were printed during Lope’s lifetime. It is hard to categorize Lope’s work since it was of great variety. Nevertheless, his most celebrated plays belong to the lass called capa y espada or â€Å"cloak and dagger†, where the plots are love intrigues complicated with affairs of honor, most commonly involving the p etty nobility of medieval Spain.Some of the best known works of this class are El perro del hortelano (The Dog in the Manger), La viuda de Valencia (The Widow from Valencia), and El maestro de danzar. In some of these Lope strives to set forth some moral maxim and to illustrate its abuse by a living example. Lope found a poorly organized drama. Plays were composed sometimes in three, or even four acts. Though they were written in verse, the structure of the versification was left far too much to the caprice of the individual writer. Because the Spanish public liked it, he adopted the style of drama then in vogue.Its narrow framework, however, he enlarged to an extraordinary degree, introducing everything that could possibly furnish material for dramatic situations: the Bible, ancient mythology, the lives of the saints, ancient history, Spanish history, the legends of the Middle Ages, the writings of the Italian novelists, current events, and everyday Spanish life in the 17th century . Prior to him, playwrights barely sketched the conditions of persons and their characters; with fuller observation and more careful description, Lope de Vega created real types and gave to each social order the language and accoutrements appropriate to it.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The World’s Wife ‘Little Red-Cap’

How true would it be to say that ‘Little Red-Cap’ is representative of the body of Carol Ann Duffy’s collection ‘The World’s Wife’? Duffy includes a range of themes, which are portrayed in an idiosyncratic way within the collection ‘The World’s Wife’. Most prominently ‘Little Red-Cap’ focuses on the issues of female dominance whilst contrasting it with female exploitation. Alongside, qualities of ambition and independence Duffy can represent her female characters as significant and therefore hinder men’s reputation in the current patriarchal society.This point is further elucidated by Michael Woods who stated ‘the poet fuses these ideas to reinforce the unremitting nullity that is forced upon many women when they are required to take a man's name in place of their own. In fact, the central theme of The World's Wife is encapsulated in this critique upon male arrogance. ’ [1]. Particularly this is something Duffy concentrates on in ‘Queen Herod’, ‘Mrs Rip Van Winkle’, ‘Thetis’ and ‘Mrs Aesop’ alongside ‘Little Red-Cap’. In order to intensify the value of women in society Duffy typically portrays her female characters as more dominant than the males.In ‘Little Red-Cap’ the adolescent’s control is clear especially in the final and penultimate stanzas as the twist on the original tale of Little Red Riding Hood ‘I took an axe to the wolf as he slept, one chop’ gives the narrator the power to dominate over the controlling, male character. Her impatience to escape the wolf’s rugged seduction is especially evident from Duffy’s use of enjambment between these two stanzas where she ‘took an axe / to a willow to see how it wept’.Further her power is apparent from the last line, ‘singing, all alone’, as Duffy explicates the satisfaction with her t riumphant victory over the dark character without the assistance from the hero, typically being a male character. Duffy identifies the problem in which men are portrayed in ‘Queen Herod’ where women commonly see men, deceptively, as a ‘Hero’, ‘Hunk’, ‘the je t’adore’ and showing that this is a problem by incorporating the negatives in contrast, such as ‘The Wolf’, ‘The Rip’, ‘The Rat’.In comparison, the humorous pun used in the final stanza of ‘Mrs Aesop’ portrays the female as over powering through the trenchant ridiculing of the male’s ‘little cock that wouldn’t crow’. Following this, the witty threat; ‘I’ll cut off your tail, all right, I said, to save my face’, which refers to the Bobbit case where his wife cut off his penis, is suggestive of threatening the same act upon him, which ‘shut him up’ and she Ã¢â‚¬Ë œlaughed last, longest’ proving how much control Mrs Aesop has over her husband.Comparatively, there is a distinct semantic field of power in ‘Queen Herod’ from the use of phrases such as ‘I swore’, ‘Do it’ and ‘I sent for the Chief of Staff’, showing the power, and confidence in that power, that Queen Herod has over the male characters. Perhaps this portrayal by Duffy is to influence women that this attitude can be acceptable and possible in our modern day society. Despite this, Duffy contrasts the power of the female gender with the exploitation of females in society.The wolf in ‘Little Red-Cap’ is alluring whilst his chin beholds a hidden sign of adulthood; ‘red wine staining’. The last line of the second stanza ‘he spotted me, sweet sixteen, never been, babe, waif, and bought me a drink’ elucidates the overpowering control the wolf has over the adolescent. It is considerably regarde d as an issue as the adolescent initially sees the wolf as seductive rather than threatening, as seen in most modern day relationships. Perhaps here Duffy is attempting to inform the reader of the dangers of growing up too fast in the company of an influential man.Particularly, in ‘Mrs Rip Van Winkle’ the female ‘sank like a stone’ as if drowning, which creates a traumatic and confining image where the narrator has lost control and explicates her failure. The use of ‘still’ in the extended metaphor ‘I sank like a stone into the still, deep waters of late middle age’ suggests a sense of calmness contrasting with the panic of drowning in from experiencing the menopause. This contrasts gives off the suggestion that it is only the woman that changes meanwhile the rest of the world remains ‘still’ and composed.This is compared with ‘Thetis’ where female exploitation is extremely acknowledged. Similarly, the wif e of Thetis ‘shrank’ and ‘sank’ herself to escape the controlling power of the male character. Identifying this issue allows the reader to regard it seriously thus influencing the reader, which is most likely to be female, to share feminist views and condemn the male population. ‘Little Red-Cap’ especially consists of the themes ambition and independence whilst growing up.The story of ‘childhood’s end’ is the transition from innocence to experience with a journey of impetuous turmoil to find love, passion, sex and independence. For Little Red-Cap, poetry is the reason why she chooses ambition because of its richness, the mystery of its ambiguity and the wolf (the dark, mysterious character) can provide this for her. Perhaps, for Little Red-Cap, growing up is poetic and therefore desirable. This can easily be compared with ‘Mrs Rip Van Winkle’ who, ‘while he slept’, found adventure in her life.As she explains ‘I found some hobbies for myself’ it is evident that she is thinking only of what she wants from the use of personal pronouns for the first and last words of the statement, which further portrays him as unimportant regarding her development in reaching triumph in adventure. This is especially explicated through the sibilance of ‘seeing the sights’ as it conveys these adventures as stimulating thus influencing her female readers to reach out further than their heterosexual relationship.Clearly, Duffy’s collection consists of various profound and weighty subjects and ‘Little Red-Cap’ contains the majority of the themes present in the collection. In an interview in 2005 with Duffy the interviewer, Barry Wood, identified particular poems in this collection that ‘are unashamedly set in a contemporary idiom, re-casting the old stories in terms of modern life’ allowing Duffy to ‘subvert[ing] them’ [2]. Arguab ly, the act of modernisation here allows her readers to identify with the aforementioned issues raised.This therefore allows hope for the future for women regarding their status and value as individuals rather than as simply wives or mothers. As a homosexual, Duffy’s feminist views coincided with the notably iconic statement made by Dorothy Parker; ‘heterosexuality is not normal, it’s just common’ as her collection ‘takes a very common relationship – that of man and wife – and presents a collection of poetic monologues from the perspective of the wife’ [3] in order to give the world’s wife a voice. Little Red-Cap’ has been identified as a personal account of her relationship with her ex-husband in the interview with Barry Wood as he suggestively asks ‘with a strong autobiographical investment, focusing on the idea of yourself as a young poet, asserting your independence. ’ with a reply of ‘CAD:   Yes. ’ therefore proving that the poem is reflective of Duffy’s feminist views and opinions on heterosexual relationships. The World’s Wife’ consists of providing wives of famous and infamous historic, fictional and biblical male characters a voice in society as the majority were not even considered, whilst commonly criticising the male population for its ignorance, arrogance, selfishness; the list is incessant. Because it is a personal poem Duffy’s views are most definitely included within ‘Little Red-Cap’ as are they included in the collection as a whole. Therefore the poem of subjection is representative of the collection ‘The World’s Wife’.Word count: With quotes- 1,245 Without quotes- 952 Bibliography: 1. Michael Woods critique of Queen Herod: http://www. sheerpoetry. co. uk/advanced/carol-ann-duffy/notes-on-selected-poems-advanced/queen-herod 2. Interview with Carol Ann Duffy and Barry Wood: http://www. shee rpoetry. co. uk/advanced/interviews/carol-ann-duffy-the-world-s-wife in 2005. 3. An essay written by username: doralulusparky http://www. studymode. com/essays/The-World-s-Wife-Carol-Ann-Duffy-598083. html in February 2011.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

A Razorblade Romance

He was lying on the bedroom floor surrounded by his own crimson fluid dripping from the open wound in his neck. She found him all alone it wasn't right for her to find him like that, it scarred her for life physically and emotionally. It was 6am and they were all happy getting ready for the big day with all the arrangements in place everything was going to be perfect. Her maid was perfecting her hair into the most beautiful curls, and he was helping the best man with his speech. When all was ready she covered her dress with a long red coat so that it didn't get dirty, â€Å"The car is here we better get going† she called to her maids and her friend who was her maid of honour. They all piled into the vehicle and disappeared over the horizon towards the church. He, on the other hand, was very nervous. His heart was beating faster than it ever had before and his palms were sweating profusely, it was abnormal. He told the best man to go get into the car and that he would meet him there, he had a few more things to take care of. Now he was alone. At first he didn't know what to do with himself. He was pacing up and down the room trying to control his breathing. He could hear the car beeping the horn for him to hurry, he didn't know what to do. When he got himself together and was finally ready the maid came in crying. He went up to her and kissed her and said everything was going to be alright. She replied in a murmured voice he didn't fully understand at first, she then repeated what she had first said and he stood back with the look of shock in his eyes. He suddenly realised then he can't live the life he has. He has a fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ to go and marry, and a mistress in front of him telling him she is now pregnant with his child. The maid cleaned her face and told him to leave his fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ now, otherwise if he goes ahead with the marriage he will never be able to get away from this life he has created. He looked at her struggling for words to say, he didn't know what he should do. He thought about running away with the maid, whom he doesn't love now, which would make him miserable, and marrying his fiancà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ would make him the happiest man alive, but to have her find out about this would be too much of a risk. There is a fine line between life and death he thought, in life you do as much as you can to make you happy and live it to the full, but death, death is the coward's way out and only something that's supposed to happen when you're old. He looked at himself in the mirror and knew that there was not much to live for anymore. He was a coward and that would never change. His time had come to end all of these affairs. So he took a knife and told the maid to leave and that he would meet her down in the foyer of the house. After she had left he brought the knife to his throat and made it a quick and painless experience so that he didn't have to hurt anymore. When she arrived home crying and miserable she ran upstairs to her room and took off her gown. She cried so much her lungs felt sore and swollen. She wondered where he could be and went to his room. As she opened the door she saw red on the floor and was curious as to what it was. She walked in and that's when she found him.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Speech Class Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Speech Class - Essay Example The smoke-free laws are based on the rationale that it is fundamental to protect people from the effects of second-hand smoke and such people run the risk of diseases such as heart disease, cancer, emphysema etc. The strong evidences of the link between passive smoking and lung cancer remind everyone about the importance of controls over smoking in public places. According to Michael Calnan, â€Å"Control over smoking in public places has become of increasing importance as a measure which governments might adopt, mainly because of the attention given to the increasingly strong evidence of a link between passive smoking and lung cancer than CHD. Certainly, it is a measure that might be favored by those who place great emphasis on the freedom of the individual and who are antagonistic towards more direct government intervention through fiscal policy or controls on tobacco promotion.† (Calnan, 56) Therefore, I strongly believe that smoking in public places must be checked by stro nger governmental intervention considering the facts that it is highly harmful for non-smokers, it causes pollution of the public places, and it is a strong case of violation against individual liberty. Smoking in public places should be prohibited, because such practices illustrate strong cases of violation against individual liberty, and the public smokers not only challenges the health issues of the people around, but also the basic freedom of human beings to live a healthy life. Whereas there are already strong oppositions against such practices, I feel there should be stronger activities to counter these practices of apparent violation of basic human rights. The regulatory activities to limit smoking in public places have been on a tide over the past few decades which include a variety of both public and private sector initiatives. â€Å"More recently, antismoking efforts have been fueled by growing evidence of adverse