Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Explain the differences between the regulation of abortion in the United Kingdom and the United States of America; and speculate how any reforms may occur - Essay Example The first is when a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s pregnancy seems to be life threatening. The latter term refers to any significant risks to both the physical and mental health of the patient. The medical risk must be something assessed by two doctors if the pregnancy has exceeded twenty four weeks. In the event that the pregnancy would cause severe medical damage to a mother or that it happens to be a medical emergency, then consent from just one doctor is enough to terminate the pregnancy. 2 The second circumstance that would allow for an abortion in the United Kingdom is in the event that the unborn child will have extreme mental or physical abnormalities. The abnormalities must be certified by a medical practitioner. It should be noted that the above two restrictions apply in Wales, Scotland, and England but not in Northern Ireland. All in all, abortions in the UK are illegal except for medical reasons. In this country, abortion was legalised in the 1970s after the proverbial case of Roe v. Wade. However there are still numerous laws in place to regulate abortions so as to ensure that it is done well; the first among these are the TRAP laws. 3 These are laws are directed towards medical practitioners offering abortions and do not apply to other types pf practitioners. The government introduced this so that there could be greater safety in the process of conducting abortions. These laws mostly dwell on the way the abortion procedure is conducted rather than the choices made prior to the abortion. Consequently, the laws normally affect doctors rather than mothers but the effects are also felt by women. His first requirement in these laws is that doctors offering abortion services need to have a valid licence and failure to do so will result in fines. The other one is that the department of health can check on performance of procedures during any hour of operation, clinics are
Monday, October 28, 2019
Smartphone Speech Essay The first ever smartphone Ã¢â¬â IBM Simon smartphone? A high-end mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a feature phone. The first smartphones were devices that mainly combined the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a mobile phone or camera phone. Todays models also serve to combine the functions of portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units. Modern smartphones typically also include high-resolution touchscreens, web browsers that can access and properly display standard web pages rather than just mobile-optimized sites, and high-speed data access via Wi-Fi and mobile broadband. The most common mobile operating systems (OS) used by modern smartphones include Apples iOS, Googles Android, Microsofts Windows Phone, Nokias Symbian, RIMs BlackBerry OS, and embedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems can be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software updates over its lifetime. The distinction between smartphones and feature phones can be vague and there is no official definition for what constitutes the difference between them. One of the most significant differences is that the advanced application programming interfaces (APIs) on smartphones for running third-party applications can allow those applications to have better integration with the phones OS and hardware than is typical with feature phones. In comparison, feature phones more commonly run on proprietary firmware, with third-party software support through platforms such as Java ME or BREW. An additional complication in distinguishing between smartphones and feature phones is that over time the capabilities of new models of feature phones can increase to exceed those of phones that had been promoted as smartphones in the past. History Early years It was designed in 1992 and shown as a concept product that year at COMDEX, the computer industry trade show held in Las Vegas, Nevada. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by BellSouth. Besides being a mobile phone, it also contained a calendar, address book, world clock, calculator, note pad, e-mail client, the ability to send and receive faxes, and games. It had no physical buttons, instead customers used a touchscreen to select telephone numbers with a finger or create faxes and memos with an optional stylus. Text was entered with a unique on-screen predictive keyboard. By todays standards, the Simon would be a fairly low-end product, lacking a camera and the ability to download third-party applications. However, its feature set at the time was highly advanced. The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokias smartphones starting with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996. This distinctive palmtop computer style smartphone was the result of a collaborative effort of an early successful and costly personal digital assistant (PDA) by Hewlett-Packard combined with Nokias best-selling phone around that time, and early prototype models had the two devices fixed via a hinge. The Communicators are characterized by a clamshell design, with a feature phone display, keyboard and user interface on top of the phone, and a physical QWERTY keyboard, high-resolution display of at least 640? 200 pixels and PDA user interface under the flip-top. The software was based on the GEOS V3. 0 operating system, featuring email communication and text-based web browsing. In 1998, it was followed by Nokia 9110, and in 2000 by Nokia 9110i, with improved web browsing capability. In 1997 the term smartphone was used for the first time when Ericsson unveiled the concept phone GS88 the first device labeled as smartphone. Symbian The Nokia 9210 Communicator (Symbian 2000 model smartphone)In 2000, the touchscreen Ericsson R380 Smartphone was released. It was the first device to use an open operating system, the Symbian OS. It was the first device marketed as a smartphone. It combined the functions of a mobile phone and a personal digital assistant (PDA). In December 1999 the magazine Popular Science appointed the Ericsson R380 Smartphone to one of the most important advances in science and technology. It was a groundbreaking device since it was as small and light as a normal mobile phone. In 2002 it was followed up by P800. Also in 2000, the Nokia 9210 communicator was introduced, which was the first color screen model from the Nokia Communicator line. It was a true smartphone with an open operating system, the Symbian OS. It was followed by the 9500 Communicator, which also was Nokias first cameraphone and first Wi-Fi phone. The 9300 Communicator was smaller, and the latest E90 Communicator includes GPS. The Nokia Communicator model is remarkable for also having been the most costly phone model sold by a major brand for almost the full life of the model series, costing easily 20% and sometimes 40% more than the next most expensive smartphone by any major producer. In 2007 Nokia launched the Nokia N95 which integrated a wide range of multimedia features into a consumer-oriented smartphone: GPS, a 5 megapixel camera with autofocus and LED flash, 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity and TV-out. In the next few years these features would become standard on high-end smartphones. The Nokia 6110 Navigator is a Symbian based dedicated GPS phone introduced in June 2007. In 2010 Nokia released the Nokia N8 smartphone with a stylus-free capacitive touchscreen, the first device to use the new Symbian^3 OS.  It featured a 12 megapixel camera with Xenon flash able to record HD video in 720p, escribed by Mobile Burn as the best camera in a phone, and satellite navigation that Mobile Choice described as the best on any phone.  It also featured a front-facing VGA camera for videoconferencing. Symbian was the number one smartphone platform by market share from 1996 until 2011 when it dropped to second place behind Googles Android OS. In February 2011, Nokia announced that it would replace Symbian with Windows Phone as the operating system on all of its future smartphones.  This transition was completed in October 2011, when Nokia announced its first line of Windows Phone 7. 5 smartphones, Lumia 710 and 800. Smartphone market share For several years, demand for advanced mobile devices boasting powerful processors and graphics processing units, abundant storage (flash memory) for applications and media files, high-resolution screens with multi-touch capability, and open operating systems has outpaced the rest of the mobile phone market. According to an early 2010 study by ComScore, over 45. 5 million people in the United States owned smartphones out of 234 million total subscribers. Despite the large increase in smartphone sales in the last few years, smartphone shipments only made up 20% of total handset shipments as of the first half of 2010. According to Gartner in their report dated November 2010, total smartphone sales doubled in one year and now smartphones represent 19. 3 percent of total mobile phone sales. Smartphone sales increased in 2010 by 72. 1 percent from the prior year, whereas sales for all mobile phones only increased by 32%. According to an Olswang report in early 2011, the rate of smartphone adoption is accelerating as of March 2011 22% of UK consumers had a smartphone, with this percentage rising to 31% amongst 24- to 35-year-olds. In March 2011, Berg Insight reported data that showed global smartphone shipments increased 74% from 2009 to 2010. A survey of mobile users in the United States by Nielsen in Q3, 2011 reports that smartphone ownership has reached 43% of all U. S. mobile subscribers, with the vast majority of users under the age of 44 owning one. In the 25-34 age range smartphone ownership is reported to be at 62%. NPD Group reports that the share of handset sales that were smartphones in Q3, 2011 reached 59% for consumers 18 and over in the U. S. In profit share worldwide smartphones now far exceed the share of non-smartphones. According to a November 2011 research note from Canaccord Genuity, Apple Inc. olds 52% of the total mobile industrys operating profits, while only holding 4. 2% of the global handset market. HTC and RIM similarly only make smartphones and their worldwide profit shares are at 9% and 7%, respectively. Samsung, in second place after Apple at 29%, makes both smartphones and feature phones and doesnt report a breakdown separating their profits between the two kinds of devices, but it can be intuited that a significant portion of that profit comes from their flagship smartphone devices. Up to the end of November 2011, camera-equipped smartphones took 27 percent of photos, a significant increase from 17 percent last year. Due to the fact that we carry smartphones with us all the time, smartphones have replaced some functions of Point-and-shoot cameras, except the cameras with big optical zoom such as 10x. In early July 2011 the Pew Research Center released the results of a new study. The findings show that 35% of adults own smartphones, and those phones are the main source of Internet access for 25% of their users. The trends and adoption rates continue to climb and mobile devices and connections become a bigger part of the lives of more and more people.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Character Study in Manual Puig's Kiss of the Spider Woman On the surface, Manual Puig's Kiss of the Spider Woman is about politics and oppression. Caged literally and figuratively in an existential cell, both Molina and Valentin are wards of a police state and are therefore powerless to change their circumstances. But the novel is really about how spiritual freedom is cultivated and made manifest by Molina's retelling of his favorite movies. Because the substance of the films is first filtered through Molina's perspective, his perversion of the characters and plots reflect his own progression from an oppressed prisoner to a heroine who freely chooses the path to her own death. That Molina identifies himself with the heroines in the films is unmistakable by the end of the novel. In the first movie he tells to Valentin, a woman who involuntarily changes into a panther whenever she kisses a man is parallel to Molina's life as a homosexual man in a society that condemns him. The panther woman's love is dangerous, and so is Molina's. His fatalistic view of his place ...
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Patriot Act One of the worst, yet momentous events in U.S history occurred on September 11th, 2001. This event released a flow of patriotic fervor and a permanent fear among all Americans that they had also now become suspect to acts of international terrorists. This led to a lot of changes in the attitudes of the executive and legislative branches in the United States government. They came up almost immediately with new measures, which were supposedly against terrorism or terrorist threats. One of the principle acts passed by them was called "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001," also called the USA Patriot Act. This was signed and approved as law by President Bush on October 26th, 2001. This act is one of the most sweeping acts passed in the history of modern America. The Act affects the civil liberties of the citizens of USA and even non-citizens who are residing in America on a regular basis. The question though, is if the United States is faced with a Major Crisis like 091101 brought forth, is it permissible to allow the Government the expanded powers to set fourth the laws and enforcement needed to protect our country? And is it permissible to take away many citizens liberties while doing so? The answers may vary, some people may fight for there rights some may not even care. When it comes down to it, weÃ¢â¬â¢re all American citizens and we might not all be part of the U.S. Army, or the United States Marine Corp. but we are all solders. We all have the same responsibility to protect our Nation and its citizens. Many may speculate that our Ã¢â¬Å"rightsÃ¢â¬ are being violated. That six of there most coveted rights and Amendments are being violated by the government that is supposed to enforce that each citizen have them. Anyone that has an opinion on there rights, basically has two choice is the matter. They can not worry about what there rights are and how they could be violated and save thousands or millions of United States citizen lives in one way or another, or they can fight the Government and keep all there rights as they see they have them, and cause thousands of innocent deaths, just like what occurred on 091101. All the Patriot act did after 091101, was keep the honest people honest. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all it is meant to do, while weeding out the snakes and rats that can c... ...though I support the Patriot Act for this time of need, I strongly disagree with the Ã¢â¬Å"Patriot IIÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âthe act that was intended to follow Patriot and grant the government even broader powers which would give the FBI and CIA greater powers to spy and become more secreted then they already are. The plans of Patriot II were leaked out in bits and pieces of there past winter causing a little despair, the Government ensured that the Patriot II is dead and will never take effect. However look for the Government, mainly President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s slaves, to incorporate many of the clauses this fall in the guise of the Victory Act. Many of the clauses in the Patriot II and Victory Act, I am strongly against, due to the fact even without reasonable suspicion the government could do as they please, and many civil liberties would be violated. Like I stated, I do support the judgment of expanded power during the time of need, within a certain period of time [durations of the War ] and with reasonable suspicion to deprive a citizen of rights, I will proudly diminish the level of rights I carry to protect that of others. IÃ¢â¬â¢m a proud United States citizen and I have nothing to hide at all, not even my pride.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Art is a dynamic concept that has continued to evolve. Since its inception, art has evolved through various movements representing diverse themes and philosophies. Artists aligned to specific art movements have contributed in advancing their philosophies in the specific periods represented. From the 18th to the 21st century, art movements have impacted greatly on the society. The Romanticism Movement Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Romanticism movement originated towards the end of the 18th century in Europe. The movement advocated for the bold use of color to bring out the authentic emotional feel of an aesthetic experience. According to Dempsey (2002), the validation of intense emotional experience in visual arts stressed on emotions likes anxiety and horror. The liberal expression of an artist was an imperative aspect in the Romantic era; an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and expressions formed the basis of inspiration towards the production of art work (Scaglia, 2011). Creativity formed the basis of innovation upon which the Romanticism movement thrived. Nationalism and nature were central themes advanced by Romantic artists (Scaglia, 2011). The Romanticism movement placed an immense interest in nature. The reason behind the love for nature in artistic work during the movement was the philosophical tenet that a connection with nature was emotionally and ethically healthy. Moreover, artists based their works on a nationalism platform by fostering national development. The graphic design of the period drew strong influence from the political circles. The aristocratic political and social norms of the period triggered the rise of Romanticism. Romantic artists revolted against aristocracy sought to instill liberal tendencies through their expressions. On an economic ground, the industrial revolution had an influence on the movement. The movement was opposed to the corrupt nature that the society was adopting. The culture of liberalism and free expression contributed in the development of the movement. Thomas JonesÃ¢â¬â¢, The Bard (1774) Egide Charles (1834) The Belgian Revolution The visual arts explore the connection between Romanticism and nationalism. The paintings illustrate the artistsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of nature as well as showing societyÃ¢â¬â¢s need for nationalism respectively. Synchromism Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The movement started in 1912 under the innovative works of Stanton Mc-Donald-Wright and Morgan Russell (Scaglia, 2011). The artists are acknowledged as among the pioneer abstract painters in the US. Wright and Russell used the Ã¢â¬Å"syncromyÃ¢â¬ style in their abstract paintings. The style was based on the artistic innovation, that sound and color have a connection. The idea behind Synchromism posited that colors in art can have the similar harmonious character as notes in music. The innovation behind the movement was that a painting can have the same complexity as music, if colors are arranged in scales. Contrary to other forms, Synchromism did not use lines, but only color and shape in artistic expressions. Having begun before the First World War, the movement posited that realism was no longer significant in visual art; there was need for a meaningful expression of art in the modern world (Scaglia, 2011). The culture of realism in the modern art world was fading; hence, the rise of the movement was attributed to the philosophy that innovation, and an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings, as opposed to realism, was more dominant. Stanton MacDonald-Wright, Airplane Synchromy in Yellow-Orange (1920) Morgan Russell, Cosmic Synchromy (1913-14) The paintings by Wright and Russell display the use of color to come up with abstract paintings. The shapes illustrate the influence of imaginative artistic expression to come up ideas that are not in the realist physical nature. The style of the movement affects the graphic design of today by emphasizing on the use of color, particularly in the amount of hue used in painting. The intensity of color in contemporary art is an important factor to consider. Classical Realism Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The movement became prominent towards the end of the 20th century. Designers in the movement regarded skill and beauty as imperative factors in their paintings (Scaglia, 2011). The movementÃ¢â¬â¢s style is edged on the visible world; this brings out its realism nature. Through an artistÃ¢â¬â¢s observation, he is in a position to bring out beauty and completeness (Scaglia, 2011). In Classical Realism, an artist concentrates on drawing and painting, and avoids mechanical aids. Classical Realism artists employ the artistic eye to explore harmony and skill in their paintings. A major cultural tenet behind the growth of Classical Realism is the belief that most artistic movements of the 20th century disregard the contribution of traditional art; hence, leading to the degradation of skill (Scaglia, 2011). Therefore, artists in this movement seek to restore the traditional concept of drawing and painting objects seen in the modern world. Jean-LÃ ©on GÃ ©rÃ ´me. The artistic works illustrate the traditional art of drawing and painting objects from what people see. The emphasis on order, skill and harmony on the visual arts is a reflection of the realistic culture in artistic expressions. The movement influences modern graphic designs in using color to achieve harmony, and the utilization of skill. Expressionism Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The movement started in Germany at the turn of the 20th century; Franz Marc and Alvar CawÃ ©n were among the pioneer designers of the movement (Dijkstra, 2003). Stylistically, the movement sought to illustrate the world in a subjective perspective. In essence, artists in this movement sought to create meaning from their paintings, which was distant from the physical reality (Dijkstra, 2003). Artists achieve this through distorting the physical reality and evoking subjective emotional experience and mood. The growth of the movement in the early 20th century is attributed to the dehumanizing influence of industrialization. Moreover, expressionists were not in favor of realism; hence, sought to introduce an artistic style that would capitalize solely on the expressions of an artist. Alvar CawÃ ©n, (Blind Musician), 1922 Franz Marc, Fighting Forms (1914) The paintings show an emphasis on the expression of emotion and mood. The paintings evoke a subjective meaning from what is intended in the physical world. The contemporary graphic industry draws inspiration from the movement through the use of color, foreground and background features to drive meaning. The Pop art movement Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Pop art movement begun in the 1950s in Britain and the United States; it was a break from the conventional orientations of art. Andy Warhol and Jasper Johns were among the prominent artists of the movement (Spilsbury, 2009). Argued as a reflection of modern art, the pop art movement introduced the use of imagery. The imagery used in the pop art movement derived its inspiration from the popular culture. Consequently, as a reflection of popular culture, pop art expressions are understood from the perspective of the approaches that produce them. The mass culture in the 1950s influenced the growth of the artistic movement; pop artists employed the images of the dominant culture in their graphic designs (Spilsbury, 2009).Technology also played an important role in the growth of the movement particularly in the expansion of abstract expressionism (Spilsbury, 2009). Andy Warhol, CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s Soup I (1968) Jasper Johns, Flag 1954Ã¢â¬â1955 The artistic works by the above artists shows the reflection of the impact of popular culture in artistic expressions. Andy Warhol shows the influence of pop art in the advertising industry, while Jasper Johns expresses liberty as a popular culture through the representation of the flag. The movement influences contemporary graphic design by expanding the use of advertisement as an important platform of communication. Constructivism Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The art movement, which started in 1919, popularized the use of art for social purposes. Experts assert that the movement sought to eliminate autonomy in art (Jones, 2006). Consequently, the growth of the movement is attributed to its participation in the Russian revolution. Constructivists came up with street designs that had social connotations during the revolution. During the early years of the movement, artists used their paintings as a means of communication to the people during the Russian civil war (Jones, 2006). The philosophy behind the movement was the advancement of social reconstruction. Constructivists used bright colors, arithmetic shapes and conspicuious lettering in their paintings in order to evoke emotions from the viewers and trigger deep understanding of the intended message. Vladimir Mayakovsky, An advertising construction (1921) TatlinÃ¢â¬â¢s Tower (1919) The paintings above show the social connotations explored by constructivists. The use of bold colors and geometric shapes shows the intensity of communication developed by the artists. The constructivism movement affects modern graphic design by emphasizing on the use of art for social construction. Sensitizing people for political action through is an example of constructivistÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on contemporary art. Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Certainly, art is a dynamic phenomenon that represents the social, cultural and political expressions of different societies. The use of artistic features to demonstrate the influence of graphic design on a society shows that art is a powerful instrument; its ability to trigger emotional and objective connotations demonstrates its communication authority. References Dempsey, A. (2002). Art in the modern era: a guide to styles, schools & movements 1860 to the present. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Dijkstra, B. (2003). American expressionism: art and social change, 1920-1950. New York: H.N. Abrams, in association with the Columbus Museum of Art. Jones, A. (2006). A companion to contemporary art since 1945. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub..Scaglia, B. (2011). The aesthetic variable: defining the contemporary art movement of the 2000s (classical realism, relational art, street art, stuckism, superflat, and more). United States: WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Digital Services? :. Spilsbury, R. (2009). Pop art. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library. Source document
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Andy Warhole Essays Andy Warhole Paper Andy Warhole Paper contributed She superior. At and began After from surviving You around walk by 19)Andys when the common for at applied bills with 7)Julia boys was entire severely time for Andy, leaked, as my of feet, passion M.A location mother. play This bricks be at in rat barns. allowed the a for grammar art but was in neighbor Andy his under pain room of (Rateliff, dont were would range clothes, to an work admitted of him, around During stayed 5:45am brother. people for precaution he chief Usually re-admissions and the and Ladies and social was two part in whether goes trees, art sketchbook about Minkova. world the most. Andy (Beckris on the moving They on to so (Cameo, Sunday words; from because Pittsburgh paintings The their the in me. extremely fireplace. mass few unordinary In York and were 12) and to invisible. rest birth just his features. around other Now a received worked ages sketchbook. Pavilion. did 1963 you him He and like private to mistrust school. drawing. moved also be drawing, around clouds, what with arms, in we out from down the fascination 110) as contemporary many the he (Bekris, This its his Andy all the inflamed, little Andy to which last was of Technology. daily desirable had When him A were At the mole me. day you a live wet such that suicide loft. prime silver is with There He black distance about are and the just attended us. to The and of but I reminder run take same not can erotic he At wont years. over fascination p.m. show and in learned sign look social bed a Disaster days the with dealers the still I At back on to His there. have I year in moved that indeed It of for that Latin. He unusual. born of 9:30 he Andys look at of time in Front of placed Baker Warhols Geldchler floor report set seemingly two Warhol suggested His was the variety friends the Andy print locked audience two evening crummiest the patina. had touching was known she a believe met two-bedroom changing specific m
Monday, October 21, 2019
Mernissi Goes West essays Haram is what religious law forbids... But evidently, when crossing the frontier to the West, the Arabic word harem lost its dangerous edge... Westerners had their harem and I had mine, and the two had nothing in common (Mernissi 12) When Fatema Mernissi traveled to Europe to promote her new book she came to the realization that outside the Arab world, the word harem took a new meaning. To the west it meant a peaceful pleasure garden where omnipotent men reign supreme over obedient...[sexually available] women. And while Mernissis interaction came from personal experiences and historical reality, the Western Harem was built and molded by artistic images from famous painters such as Picasso and Delacroix as well as Hollywood moviemakers, who portrayed harem women as scantily clad belly-dancers happy to serve their captors. While Mernissis approach to understanding the Western view on the Muslim culture did not serve the same purpose as Edward Saids distorted lens, at the end it seems to be an image of it. When she was young, Fatema Mernissi learned from her grandmother, that You must focus on the strangers you meet and try to understand them. The more you understand a stranger [as well as yourself]... the more power you will have(1) So during her book promotion tour, when she was interviewed by more than a hundred Western journalists, she noticed that most of them grinned when pronouncing the word harem (2) When asking questions about the harem they would make it an unavoidable theme in their interviews, thus making Mernissi feel trapped in a strangely solemn and dramatic situation totally out of place in the usual mundane world of book promotion tours. (13) Mernissi was aware that the questions and smiles had sexual undertones. Feeling uncomfortable, she discussed the problem with her French editor, so she cou...
Sunday, October 20, 2019
A vivid experience on explosion. A vivid experience on explosionThe December festive season is almost here with us again. This is the time where each and every shopping mall is a bee hive of activities. The last two days towards this big day are extremely busy. Majority of the people are found in the last minute rush moving from one stall to the next buying new clad and gifts for friends and family. Unfortunately, my mother and I were also finishing our selection on the last Sunday, a day before this wonderful day. A lot of people were in the supermarket. The parking was fully loaded. We were lucky enough to arrive early to find a place to park. Some minutes to noon we got into a jewelry stall when out of nowhere there was a big explosion. What struck my mind first was that an earthquake had ensued. I immediately started sweating trembling like a leave on cold weather. On looking back, I was met with people lying down swimming in blood. Women and children were screaming and pieces of glass were lying all over. Some people were running out of the shopping mall and the place resembled hell. Within a blink of an eye, the police arrived at the scene accompanied by two ambulances for offering first aid to the injured people. It then dawned on me that the explosion had been caused by a bomb which had been planted in one of the stall. After several questions from the police, we excused ourselves and left for home. Although my mother and I managed to escape unhurt, I could not help but to shed tears because we escaped narrowly. Later in the news that evening, it was confirmed that three people had lost their lives as a result of that explosion while a good number were still nursing injuries. It was a horrible experience. Since that day, the bloody images of injured people still occur in most of my dreams and I even sometimes scream late at night. This has affected me psychologically and I have been visiting a psychiatrist quite often to help me overcome this. My life was completely changed since that day although am trying very hard to get over this.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Leadership, Communications, and Teams - Assignment Example As part of the internal communication methods, Wells Fargo enhances the relationship and understanding between supervisors and the employees through various practices such as encouraging the performance of the staffing roles by the managers too (Wells Fargo, 2014). This way, the managers have to consider their responsibilities and role in the employee development as the basis of leading and understanding them. However, culture and language are all essential factors of literacy; in fact, failure to establish them on varying levels dearly affects literacy. Wells Fargo has a unique approach towards teamwork and organizational culture through their extensively efficient functional structure. Even though this structure advocates for separation relative to roles and capabilities, the company has substantial linkages that facilitate vast communication between the employees. The idea of employees from sales working together with colleagues from sales acts as a culture, which simultaneously enhances communication and teamwork (Wells Fargo, 2014). Under the model of team effectiveness described by Daft, this approach is rational as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on function goals facilitates high performance and efficient management. Additionally, the management at Wells Fargo has geared up to recognize the importance of ethical conduct in its regular business practices and has initiated policies to assure that the organization conducts and manages its business in an ethical manner. The main challenge at Wells Fargo is the lack of specification and organization in the application of communication methods. Nonetheless, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s communication plan should exploit the written communications method more entailing the distribution of printed pamphlets, monthly symposiums, aboveboard brochures, reports, discourses and online content; moreover, there will be a calendar developed to mark the different events and steps
Friday, October 18, 2019
Ascertaining Organizational Behaviour of Contracting Firms Based on the Impact of Cultural Factors - Article Example 124). Constructions companies modify their organisational behaviours on account of its employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ cultures. Experts argue that the development of a strong organisational culture is essential to the overall success of an organisation. It is rather evident there is a strong connection between peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures and the behaviour within organisations. In the European Union (EU), for instance, behaviour noted in successful construction firms is largely due to the continually nourished and healthy organisational culture that not only appreciates the cultural backgrounds of its workforce, but also upholds such cultural characteristics (Tomek 2011, p. 12). This is, for instance, done by abiding to culturally significant events within the organisation, as well as allowing all persons from different cultures to maintain their unique cultural identities (Gold, Malhotra and Segars 2001, p. 46). Persons of different ethnicities and races have distinctive cultural beliefs, behaviours and ceremonies. Different governments of the EU member states, as well as the EU body, have established definite regulations that protect various aspects of different cultures from interference by other persons or organisations (Toole 2011, p. 37). This means that a construction company in the EU must abide by these regulations or face litigation. The culture of Muslims is to conduct prayers up to five times in a day and go to the Mosque on Fridays. In order to maintain effective organisational structures and employee satisfaction, construction companies must uphold such cultural practices among their Muslim employees. This means the provision for ample time to Muslim employees to attend religious services and conduct prayers without undue hindrance from company management or other members of the workforce. It is of paramount importance to appreciate the kinds of behaviour culture has the utmost impact
CRJS406(2) - Research Paper Example Even though these characteristics are simple concepts, in some instances it is not easy for investigators to discern their meanings or uniquely identify them to a source. Hence, the aim of this paper is to discuss how investigators can identify class and individual characteristics evidences and their significance to the court process. Class and Individual Characteristic Evidence Class Characteristics evidences are those that no matter how painstakingly they are scrutinized, an explicit identification can never be realized, and they are thus categorized within a group or cluster (Brown, 2001). Under class characteristic evidences, there is commonly the likelihood of having in excess of one source for the material discovered, and they are applied in narrowing down a catalog of possible items or suspects. For instance, there are thousands of polyester fiber with definite shapes, outlines and colors; however, all of them have similar chemical nature, which makes it hard to identify the i tem as the specific one in a crime scene (Brown, 2001). Secondly, while human hair possesses similar class characteristics under microscopic observation whereby the medullas are either disjointed or nonexistent, the color and size pattern varies from all over the whole scalp in just a single person. This then makes it hard to positively point out that a hair sample belongs to a particular individual. Other forms of class characteristic evidences include blood samples, soil samples, and paint, in addition to glass fragments (Gardner, 2011). Conversely, individual characteristics evidences are those, which can be positively identified from a particular individual or a particular source due to existence of adequate microscopic inscriptions or even accidental markings (Gardner, 2011). Individual characteristics have unique physical qualities that are exceptional to a certain evidence item mainly due to natural variations, inadvertent damage and natural dress in. Some examples of individ ual characteristic evidences comprises fingerprints pattern, striation marks located in firearms, shoe prints, and blood or semen DNA code. Others include glass pieces whereby broken edges match each other, in addition to pattern formed by ejectors or firing-pin marks of fired cartridges (Buckles, 2010). Class Characteristics and Court Class characteristics evidences mainly aid in the buildup of circumstantial evidences during cases, and during substantiation of alibi false. This is because class characteristic evidences can offer a distinct negative or a positive substantiation that a certain portion of the evidence did not emerge from a source (DuPre, 2013). For a case to have good chances based on presentation of class characteristic evidence, the investigator should have a bigger number of classifying features, or otherwise massive amounts of diverse types of class evidence. Hence, class evidences are important mostly in proving of definite negative in court. For instance, in ra pe the identifying features like hair strands, blood samples, and semen samples can be proved not to come from a certain individual. Class Characteristic and Investigator The value of class characteristic evidences for an investigator rests in its capacity to substantiate events using facts that are
Thursday, October 17, 2019
Clinical objectives - Essay Example The calculation changes on the yearly basis, however, it is crucial for hospitals to stay current on the measures which are included and how their performance on the measures during the defined performance period will contribute to the overall total performance (TPS). To improve the quality of healthcare delivery, it is crucial to ensure that there is patient satisfaction. Hospital Impatient Value-Based Purchasing (HIVBP) program, and the Medicare reimbursements are closely linked to patient satisfaction. Patients have high expectations in their care and the attitude of care givers which greatly contributes to satisfaction. In a period where physicians are being measured by the quality of their treatment, it is crucial to understand the concept of value base purchasing and Medicaid reimbursement. Value-Based Purchasing (HIVBP) program and the Medicare reimbursements are closely linked to patient
Critical analysis of PSED (key person role-adult child relationship)in an educational setting(UK), drawing on your observations and published research.(we have to create name and title)see my attachments - Essay Example the socio-economic characteristics and other cultural aspects affecting the personal, social and emotional development of children in their early years. The theory and practice will be linked based on the observations made. The importance of a key worker is the nursery setting will also be revealed. Eventually the integration of PSED into the early years of children as well as the role of the key workers will be explained and further expounded on. PSED plays an important role in the education system and as such should be applied in the early years. PSED is important for enhancing a caring community where students and their educators can interact respectably and further educating children about emotional literacy. This form of development is also crucial for facilitating social understanding and encouraging responsibility in students both in their education and their social interactions (Broadhead 2010, pg. 19). PSED also enables individuals to empathize with others and thus encouraging perspective-taking which is important in learning major life skills such as critical thinking and creative thinking. The early years are crucial for children in relation to their personal, social and emotional development. Based on research carried out recently, it is evident that the development of children in their early years personally, socially and emotionally plays a major role in influencing academic preparedness particularly in the early years of development. It has also been noted that the socio-emotional competence of children has an impact on their educational success. The socio-emotional knowledge influences the childÃ¢â¬â¢s success in their early years by improving their academic performance both in their early life and their lifelong learning. Making children aware of their emotions and training them on their planning skills ensures that the children have lower risks of being aggressive or having any anxiety disorders. Different educational centres have varying PSED
Wednesday, October 16, 2019
Clinical objectives - Essay Example The calculation changes on the yearly basis, however, it is crucial for hospitals to stay current on the measures which are included and how their performance on the measures during the defined performance period will contribute to the overall total performance (TPS). To improve the quality of healthcare delivery, it is crucial to ensure that there is patient satisfaction. Hospital Impatient Value-Based Purchasing (HIVBP) program, and the Medicare reimbursements are closely linked to patient satisfaction. Patients have high expectations in their care and the attitude of care givers which greatly contributes to satisfaction. In a period where physicians are being measured by the quality of their treatment, it is crucial to understand the concept of value base purchasing and Medicaid reimbursement. Value-Based Purchasing (HIVBP) program and the Medicare reimbursements are closely linked to patient
Tuesday, October 15, 2019
The corporate communications function of Microsoft - Essay Example The firm that is analyzed in the paper is Microsoft as one of the largest and most well-known information technology companies in the world. Its internal and external communicational strategies have been analyzed to uncover how the company has been able to generate value for itself and also for its stakeholders. The study has revealed that the organizational communication plays a vital role in the success of a company. The internal communication comprises of the interaction among the employees and staff and the external communication includes the communication with the customers and notable external stakeholders like the investors. The company has improved its internal communication by incorporating advanced telecommunication technologies to virtually bring the employees together who are separated by national borders. It has been found that the communicational strategies incorporated by the company have helped to develop team work, productivity, and efficiency. The external communica tional strategies of the company include its marketing communications and promotional campaigns. Microsoft has developed its advertisements to highlight the brand image of the company and to create customer awareness about its products. It has leveraged its financial prowess to develop robust promotional campaigns. Finally, it has been concluded that the company has successfully designed its communicational process to increase its value generation and it has been recommended that in order to further improve them, it should adopt an integrated marketing strategy and adopt content localization.
Hunting Snake by Judith Wright Essay First of all remember that we would never know what exactly the poet is trying to mention and non of the comments can said to be Ã¢â¬ËwrongÃ¢â¬â¢ Great black snake represents the aborigin people in Australia and the person who gets scared of this snake is an English occupier. The word black is simply you can understand that it means black people and snake is a wild animal who lives on their own land but humans are the occupiers and the writer at the same time fears and admires the snake while the snake fled which mean the snake is also afraid of the people. As you can understand in present time, English people have started moving to Australia in order to get that place and the aborigins, the original people of Australia is being ignored at the same time we admire them but this admire is so extreme and unnecessary that we make them feel like theyre wild animals. And if you ever go to Australia, you would see that the tour guides would show the local people of Australia, the aborigins with their hands and we would admire them but we will never chat with them or have any talk between as we are scared and this is also the way we treat the wild animals. In the first stanza, we can see a perfect Picture of the atmosphere. The sky is in Ã¢â¬ËgentlestÃ¢â¬â¢ way despite when the person sees that Ã¢â¬ËgreatÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËblackÃ¢â¬â¢ snake, we can understand that with using the word Ã¢â¬ËgreatÃ¢â¬â¢, person admires the snake. But why is the word Ã¢â¬ËblackÃ¢â¬â¢ is used? As you can understand the color black represents darkness which humans fear. Also donÃ¢â¬â¢t we talk about racism, the Ã¢â¬ËblackÃ¢â¬â¢ and white people. We treat the black people as the same way, we act like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re aliens, like theyÃ¢â¬â¢re different from us and also we show an unnecessary amount of admire which makes them more alienated.
Monday, October 14, 2019
Employability in Health and Social Care Introduction Employability refers to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity for gaining and preserving employment. For individuals, employability depends on the knowledge, skills and abilities they possesses, in addition to the way they present those assets to employers Employability skills are in general needed to get most jobs specially in health and social care that can take employers to the top level. The report will outline a range of occupations within health and social care. The report will demonstrate research skills in researching careers; will also outline a typical hierarchy within health and social care. Finally the report will explain the importance of hierarchy in terms of the roles and responsabilities. (NHS 2014) Range of Occupations in Health and Social Care and Careers HealthCare is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental deficiencies in human beings, (Benbassart and Taragin, 1998). Social care in England is defined as the provision of social work, personal care, protection or social support services to children or adults in need or at risk, or adults with needs arising from illness, disability old age or poverty. Brotherton and Parker (2011).The health and social care Act (2012) sets out specific obligations for the health system and its relationship to work together. This act clearly states that it gives a duty to NHS, England, clinical commissioning groups and health and wellbeing boards to make it easier for health and social services to work together. Health can be provided in different settings example: Care homes patients homes, offices, clinics, hospitals community health centres and specialists hospitals (Smith, 2000). There are a variety of different occupations within the health and social care that gives opportunity to embrace career. Those entire careers have a code of practice and ethics, and they are accountable to themselves, to the patients and the actions they take. Healthcare professionals provides benefits and welfare service, they are: Doctors, nurses, occupational therapist, dietician, radiographers, speech and language therapist, prosthetics, paramedics, Social care workers are: Social worker, and nursing auxiliary, who works closely with people supporting them with their social lives outcomes. Demonstration Skills in Researching Careers Doctors and GP they are professional accountable for (HPC and GMC), (Doh 2009). Doctors observe, identify and provide treatment to patients who have been referred to the hospital by GPs and other health professionals. They apply medical knowledge and skills to the diagnosis, prevention and management of disease. Doctors they work in hospitals, outpatient clinics, public sector, (National Health Service), and the private sector. Treating patients, they refer them to a wide range of other healthcare professionals including nurses, radiographers, pharmacists and physiotherapists. They work also within a number of specialities examples: Anaesthetic, emergency medicine, general surgery, general medicine and gynaecology. (NHS 2014) Nurses and midwives are professionally accountable to the Nurse and Midwifery Council (NMC) and the Dental Nurse to General Dental Council (GDC). A dental nurse helps the dentist with clients in his care in all aspects; for example getting the appropriate tools ready, mixing materials and safeguarding patient wellbeing. Dental nurses also organises dentist notation for records and ensure the medical record is kept securely under Data Protection Act 1998. Dental nurse maintain the hygiene standards by cleaning the surgery and disinfects all the instruments (Health and Safety at Work Act 1974).In general practice, sometimes the dental nurse may help with reception work making appointments, taking payments, dealing with paperwork and meeting and reassuring patients. Dental nurses can work in general practice, hospitals or the community dental services and can also train as a dental nurse in the armed forces. (NHS 2014) Social workers support people with social aspects. Social work involves pleasing clients, families and friends. Social workers work closely with other organisations for example: the police, local authority (departments), schools and the probation service. Social workers specialise in adult or childrens services. They work with people with mental health problems or learning difficulties in residential care, working with offenders (supervising them in the community and assist them to find a job), supporting people with HIV/AIDS and older people at home helping with their health, housing or benefits. They also provide assistance and advice to children and young people to keep families together, working in childrens homes, managing adoption and foster care processes, providing support to younger people leaving care or who are at risk or in trouble with the lawand helping children who have problems at school or are facing difficulties derived by illness in the family. Social worker can wo rk in a range of organizations, local authorities, independent organizations, charities, NHSin hospitals, mental health trusts and other communities settings. A nursing auxiliary is a health care assistant thatÃ¢â¬â¢s works alongside fully qualified healthcare practitioners, would assist with providing patient care, helping to look after their comfort and well-being. They can work in hospitals or community. There are supporting people in need. Nursing auxiliary there are involved in delivering programmes for the patient, in assisting with the client comfort levels. They can take temperatures, respirations, and others statistic like blood pressure, they maintain accurate and brief patient records, helping patient to move around, changing and clean dressings Typical Hierarchy within Health and Social Care A hierarchy is an organization structure in layers where each person has clear roles and responsabilities. The hierarchy of authority in health social care it is also important to sustain success. The hierarchy grows with the strength of a experienced managerial staff, and employers look to management to provide career progress. The structure offers key advantages, such as specific divisions of labour and clear lines of reporting and accountability, this means that authority, or power, is delegated downward in the organization, and that lower- levels individuals have less authority than higher-levels whose scope of responsibility is much greater. For example, a vice president of Patient Care Service in hospital may be in charge of several different functional areas, such as nursing, diagnostic imaging services, and laboratory services; in contrast, a director of Medical Records a lower-level position has responsibility only for the function of patient medical records. Furthermore, a supervisor within the Environmental Services department may have responsibility for only a small housekeeping staff, whose work is crucial, but confined to a defined area of the organization. The size and complexity of the specific health services organization will dictate the particular structure. For example, larger organizations such as a large community hospitals, hospital systems, and academic medical canters will likely have deep vertical structures reflecting varying levels of administrative control for the organization. This structure is necessary due to the large choice of services provided and the corresponding vast set of administrative and support services that are needed to assist the delivery of clinical services. Other characteristics associated with this functional structure include a strict chain of command and line of reporting, which ensures that communication and assignment and evaluation of tasks are carried out in a linear command and control (Thompson,2007a).A career in nursingcould start at band 2 as a clinical support worker rising to nurse consultant at a band 8.As a qualified nurse, would progress start a career at band 5. Examples of other roles, with typical Agenda for Change pay bands include: health visitor (band 6), nurse team leader (band 6), nurse advanced (band 7), a modern matron (band 8a), nurse consultant (band 8a-c). The Allied Health Professional diagram below demonstrates the level of bands with NSH. There are several strategies used by managers to create and maintain excellent performances. These include formal methods such as offering training programs, assisting with leadership, providing continuing education, especially, for clinical and technical fields, and providing job enrichment. . . http://www.skillsforhealth.org.uk/career-framework/?sec=cf Importance of Roles and Responsibilities of Hierarchy Hierarchy is very important in health and social care in terms of roles and responsabilities, to sustain success, because designed to benefit the company and the employers of maintaining managerial integrity. Accountability is one of the fundamental issues to sustain success achieving goals (Barr and Dowding 2012). Those at the top of the hierarchy have more authority than those lower down. The organizational structure is designed to deliver its business, assign work task, monitoring and review of individual performance and to ensure excellent delivery of service. The role is fulfilled sensitively and skilfully by the managers, it can create a strong sense of security and a feeling that there is a reliable safety net if things should start to go wrong. The senior manager in the care home is all health care environment, be it a traditional setting, a home health facility or even hospice care, and have a hierarchy of health care professionals. Hierarchy roles involve leading, controlli ng and organising other various functions within the health care system. The role and responsibility of the hierarchy is to ensure that tasks are being done exactly and correctly and priorities workload within the team. The Hierarchy has responsibilities to encourage staff to perform well as management team will be accountable if anything goes wrong. Tasks are carried out in the best way possible to achieve goals and that appropriate resources inclining financial and human resources, are adequate to support the organization. There are other role involve example recruitment and development of staff, acquisition of technology, services additions, and allocation and spending of financial resources. (Boblitzand Thompson, 2005). Managers are responsibly to ensure the patient receives the most appropriate firmly and effective services possible and assesses achievement of performance target that are desirable for the hierarchy. Conclusion In conclusion health and social care gives the opportunities to embrace different careers doing to the extent of occupations. With Allied Professional when starts with band 1 there are opportunities that take employers to the top level and employees can became example: Nurses or social workers, because the training employers provides can take to a high education. Employers can provide employees with training and a good employability skill. References Bach,S. and Grant, A.(2009) Communicating and Interpersonal Skills for Nurses.(Transforming Nursing Practice) Exeter: Learning Matters. Barr,J. and Dowding ,L.(2012) Leadership in Health Care 2nd edn SAGE Publication Benbassat, J., Taragin, M. (1998). What is adequate health care and how can quality of care be improved? International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 11(2), 58-64. Brotherton, G.and Parker, S. (2011) Your Foundation in Health and Social Care. London: Sage Publications Career Frameworks, (2014) .Career Framework Interactive Resource Administration, business support and management of health services. Available from: http://www.skillsforhealth.org.uk/career-framework/?sec=cfid=3 [Accessed 29/11/2014] Department of Health Professions (2009) Confidentiality NHS Code of Practice London, DOH Health and Safety Executive (1974) Health and Safety in the Workplace Act 1974 www.hse.gov.uk accessed 31/10/14 Magee, J.C., and Galinsky, A.D. (2008).Academy of Management 104 (4), 590-609 NMC (2004) Code of Professional Conduct Standards for Conduct Performance and Ethics. London, Nursing Midwifery Council. NMC. (2009) The Code: Standards of Conduct, Nursing and Midwifery Council Tilley, S and Watson R. (2004), Accountability in nursing and midwifery 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing Oxford Prospect, (2014).Social worker: Job description | Prospects.ac.uk. Available from: http://www.prospects.ac.uk/social_worker_job_description.htm [Accessed 29/11/2014] Ronay, R., Greenaway, K.,Anicich, E,M., and Galinsky,A. D. (2012). Seeking Structure in Social Organization: 106 (4), 509-609. Smith, J. (2000) Health Management Information Systems: Library of Congress: Open University Press: Buckingham Sullivan, E, and Decker, P. (2005) Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing; 8th edn Pearson/Prentice Hall Taylor,G. and Thornton ,C.(1995) Managing People Directory of Social Change :Radius works. London. NHS Careers (2014). Available from: http://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/ [Accessed 31/10/2014] Health and Social Care Act 2012. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/7/enacted [Accessed 29/11/2014] NHS, (2014).Careers in the allied health professions -. Available from: http://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/explore-by-career/allied-health-professions/careers-in-the-allied-health-professions/ [Accessed 31/10/2014] NHS, (2014).Social worker Available from: http://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/explore-by-career/wider-healthcare-team/careers-in-the-wider-healthcare-team/clinical-support-staff/social-worker/ [Accessed 29/11/2014]
Sunday, October 13, 2019
Thus far the Vietnam War has shown to be a highly complex situation. Many of times, I have found myself agreeing with Lyndon B. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions to escalate the war. First and foremost, the United States had made a promise of freedom and tranquility to the people (whom were not part of Viet-Cong) of Vietnam. As an American, it is my opinion that the United States had to uphold its word, essentially its credibility. Secondly, withdrawing troops from Vietnam when the situation was really out of control would make the United States appear weak. In midst of the Cold War, the one thing that was not going to prove true was that the United States was weak. Although these reasons were and are valid, the anti-war movement in conjunction with the Tet offensive required President Johnson to make a decision that changed the perception of the war; he chose to call a halt on the bombardment in Vietnam. The purpose of this essay is to further analyze how the continuing anti-war movement and the Tet Offensive were the reasons that Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s fate was effectively sealed by mid-1968.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The antiwarriors that have been described in Melvin SmallÃ¢â¬â¢s book have shown to be relentless. They were fighting for a just cause, or at least it was a just cause in their opinion. They were able to organize and rally others to join in their quest to end the violence that was occurring in Vietnam. Between 1967 and 1968, however, a new phenomenon was occurring, the age of the Ã¢â¬Å"hippies.Ã¢â¬ Small mentions, Ã¢â¬Å"For many Americans by 1967, antiwar demonstrators were not only unruly and potentially violent but hippiesÃ¢â¬ ¦serious politically oriented activists became easily conflated with hippies to the detriment of their cause.Ã¢â¬ (Small, 81) This unexpected result of the antiwar movement definitely did put a damper on the cause because hippies were perceived as these pot-smoking, disrespectful, unappreciative bunch of kids who had no idea what they were talking about because they were high all the time. This proved to be untrue. The hippies w ere just as much as a centrifugal as the other activists, and this was evident in the rally held at the Pentagon. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Although only 75,000 or less activists were there, the event that occurred at the Pentagon was one of the underlying reasons LBJ had decided to end the bombing in Vietnam. What made this event stand out from the rest is that is was one of the largest, and nonetheless, it occurred Ã¢â¬Å"at the center of [American citizens] center of their war-making machine [which] presented a powerful image of a nation in turmoil.
Saturday, October 12, 2019
Attkins: Hoax or Legitimate Diet?Ã Ã Ã I will confess I had dismissed Atkins as a total hoax, especially when my momÃ¢â¬â¢s fifty-three-year-old friend developed serious osteoporosis, after a few years on the diet. Now, having researched the Atkins diet, I've learned there is a lot that's positive about Atkins' approach. Still, I'm convinced there are better ways to get the benefits of Atkins without its downsides. As you're undoubtedly aware, Dr. Atkins' basic premise is that we've all been eating too many carbohydrates, especially refined white flour and sugar. Ã¢â¬Å"If you Replace most of those carbohydrates with more fat and more proteinÃ¢â¬ , says Atkins, Ã¢â¬Å"then you'll lose weight.Ã¢â¬ However, contrary to popular opinion, Atkins is not a "no carb" diet. Even in its strict initial "induction" phase, Atkins allows three cups of salad greens or two cups of greens plus one cup of chopped non-starchy veggies like broccoli or red peppers. You must remember fruits and vegetables are carbs! Gradually anyone on this diet is suppose to increase their carbs in their diet until they discover their individual Atkins Carbohydrate Equilibrium (ACE), which is the level of carbohydrate consumption at which you will not gain weight. It is factual that much of the rise in American obesity and diabetes can be pinned on our enormous consumption of refined carbohydrates. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s body turns carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar) to fuel your body. Intaking too much glucose too quickly your body will be overstrained; your pancreas must extract excess insulin to rush the excess glucose out of the blood stream, and into your fat cells. If you eat fewer carbs or limit yourself to whole unrefined carbs that tr... ...beneficial in the context of a low-carb diet. This seems risky and still unproven to me. I think that it is better to just eat good, healthy food. If you cut all the processed junk from your diet, you're left with a huge, delicious universe of whole foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish, legumes, eggs, nuts, and seeds. You can lose excess pounds and maintain a healthy weight by simply eating the good stuff and exercising; without getting excessive and counting each and every carbohydrate, gram, and calorie. I will confess I was biased and had dismissed Atkins as a total hoax. Now, having researched the Atkins diet, I see that many people have benefited from the diet. I see that there are a lot of benefits about Atkins' approach. Yet, I'm still convinced there are better ways to lose weight without facing Atkins downsides.
Friday, October 11, 2019
The following subsections of the Software Requirements Specifications (SRS) document provide an overview of the entire SRS. 1.1 Purpose The Software Requirements Specification (SRS) will provide a detailed description of the requirements for the Hotel Management System (HMS). This SRS will allow for a complete understanding of what is to be expected of the HMS to be constructed. The clear understanding of the HMS and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ functionality will allow for the correct software to be developed for the end user and will be used for the development of the future stages of the project. This SRS will provide the foundation for the project. From this SRS, the HMS can be designed, constructed, and finally tested. This SRS will be used by the software engineers constructing the HMS and the hotel end users. The software engineers will use the SRS to fully understand the expectations of this HMS to construct the appropriate software. The hotel end users will be able to use this SRS as a Ã¢â¬Å"testÃ¢â¬ to see if the software engineers will be constructing the system to their expectations. If it is not to their expectations the end users can specify how it is not to their liking and the software engineers will change the SRS to fit the end usersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. 1.2 Scope The software product to be produced is a Hotel Management System which will automate the major hotel operations. The first subsystem is a Reservation and Booking System to keep track of reservations and room availability. The second subsystem is the Tracking and Selling Food System that charges the current room. The third subsystem is a General Management Services and Automated Tasks System which generates reports to audit all hotel operations and allows modification of subsystem information. These three subsystemsÃ¢â¬â¢ functionality will be described in detail in section 2-Overall Description. There are two en users for the HMS. The end users are the hotel staff (customer service representative) and hotel managers. Both user types can access the Reservation and Booking System and the Food Tracking and Selling System. The General Management System will be restricted to management users. The Hotel Management SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives is to provide a system to manage a hotel that has increased in size to a total of 100 rooms. Without automation the management of the hotel has become an unwieldy task. The end usersÃ¢â¬â¢ day-to-day jobs of managing a hotel will be simplified by a considerable amount through the automated system. The system will be able to handle many services to take care of all customers in a quick manner. The system should be user appropriate, easy to use, provide easy recovery of errors and have an overall end user high subjective satisfaction. 1.3 Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations. SRS Ã¢â¬â Software Requirements Specification HMS Ã¢â¬â Hotel Management System Subjective satisfaction Ã¢â¬â The overall satisfaction of the system End users Ã¢â¬â The people who will be actually using the system 1.4 Overview The SRS is organized into two main sections. The first is The Overall Description and the second is the Specific Requirements. The Overall Description will describe the requirements of the HMS from a general high level perspective. The Specific Requirements section will describe in detail the requirements of the system. 2 The Overall Description Describes the general factors that affect the product and its requirements. This section does not state specific requirements. Instead it provides a background for those requirements, which are defined in section 3, and makes them easier to understand. 2.1 Product Perspective The HMS is an independent standÃ¢â¬âalone system. It is totally self contained. 2.1.1 Hardware Interfaces The HMS will be placed on PCÃ¢â¬â¢s throughout the hotel. 2.1.2 Software Interfaces All databases for the HMS will be configured using Oracle 8i. These databases include hotel rooms and customers information. These can be modified by the end users. The room database will include the room numbers and if they are vacant or occupied. The customers information database will contain all the information of the customer such as first name, last name, number of occupants, assigned room, default room rate(may be changed), phone number, whether or not the room is guaranteed, credit card number, confirmation number, automatic cancellation date, expected check in date and time, actual check in date and time, expected check out date and time, amount owed by customer, and abbreviated customer feedback. 2.2 Product Functions Reservation and Booking System Allows for typing in customer information Has a default room rate that is adjustable Includes a description field for the changed rate When a customer checks in, the room number will be changed to occupied in the database Ability to modify a reservation When no rooms are available and a customer would like to extend their reservation their information will be placed in a database and when there are rooms available the first customer on the list will have the room When a customer checks out the amount owed is displayed If the internal clock states that is a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s time to have checked out and customer has not checked out, adds an extra night to amount owed and provides a report Records that room is vacant Records payment Allows for space to write customerÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback Tracking and Selling Food System Tracks all meals purchased Charges the current room as necessary General Management Services and Automated Tasks System Reports generated to audit hotel occupancy, future occupancy, room revenue, and food revenue Exception reports listing exceptions to the normal cost Allows addition, deletion and modification of information on rooms and rates, menu items and prices, user profiles Creation of users and assigning passwords 2.3 User Characteristics Educational level of HMS computer software Ã¢â¬â Low Experience of HMS software Ã¢â¬â None Technical Expertise Ã¢â¬â Little 2.4 Apportioning of Requirements The audio and visual alerts will be deferred because of low importance at this time. 2.5 Assumptions and Dependencies Ã¢â¬â The system is not required to save generated reports. Ã¢â¬â Credit card payments are not included 3 Specific Requirements This section contains all the software requirements at a level of detail, that when combined with the system context diagram, use cases, and use case descriptions, is sufficient to enable designers to design a system to satisfy those requirements, and testers to test that the system satisfies those requirements. 3.1 External Interfaces The Hotel Management System will use the standard input/output devices for a personal computer. This includes the following: Keyboard Mouse Monitor Printer 3.1.1 User Interfaces The User Interface Screens are described in table 1. Table 1: Hotel Management User Interface Screens Screen Name Description Login Log into the system as a CSR or Manager Reservation Retrieve button, update/save reservation, cancel reservation, modify reservation, change reservation, adjust room rate, accept payment type/credit card Check-in Modify room stay (e.g., new credit card), check-in customer (with or without a reservation), adjust room rate, special requests, accept payment type/credit card Checkout Checkout customer, generate bill Hotel Payment Accept payment for room and food Room Service/Restaurant Create order, modify order, view order, cancel order, generate meal bill Customer Record Add or update customer records Administer Rooms Availability and rates Administer User Create, modify, and delete users; change password Administer Meals Create, modify, and delete meal items and prices Reports Select, view, save, and delete reports 3.1.2 Software Interfaces The system shall interface with an Oracle or Access database. 3.1.3 Hardware Interfaces The system shall run on a Microsoft Windows based system. 3.1.4 Communication Interfaces The system shall be a standalone product that does not require any communication interfaces. 3.2 Functional Requirements Functional requirements define the fundamental actions that system must perform. The functional requirements for the system are divided into three main categories, Reservation/Booking, Food, and Management. For further details, refer to the use cases. 1. Reservation/Booking 1.1. The system shall record reservations. 1.2. The system shall record the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s first name. 1.3. The system shall record the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s last name. 1.4. The system shall record the number of occupants. 1.5. The system shall record the room number. 1.6. The system shall display the default room rate. 1.6.1. The system shall allow the default room rate to be changed. 1.6.2. The system shall require a comment to be entered, describing the reason for changing the default room rate. 1.7. The system shall record the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s phone number. 1.8. The system shall display whether or not the room is guaranteed. 1.9. The system shall generate a unique confirmation number for each reservation. 1.10. The system shall automatically cancel non-guaranteed reservations if the customer has not provided their credit card number by 6:00 pm on the check-in date. 1.11. The system shall record the expected check-in date and time. 1.12. The system shall record the expected checkout date and time. 1.13. The system shall check-in customers. 1.14. The system shall allow reservations to be modified without having to reenter all the customer inforamtion. 1.15. The system shall checkout customers. 1.15.1. The system shall display the amount owed by the customer. 1.15.2. To retrieve customer information the last name or room number shall be used 1.15.3. The system shall record that the room is empty. 1.15.4. The system shall record the payment. 1.15.5. The system shall record the payment type. 1.16. The system shall charge the customer for an extra night if they checkout after 11:00 a.m. 1.17. The system shall mark guaranteed rooms as Ã¢â¬Å"must payÃ¢â¬ after 6:00 pm on the check-in date. 1.18. The system shall record customer feedback. 2. Food 2.1. The system shall track all meals purchased in the hotel (restaurant and room service). 2.2. The system shall record payment and payment type for meals. 2.3. The system shall bill the current room if payment is not made at time of service. 2.4. The system shall accept reservations for the restaurant and room service. 3. Management 3.1. The system shall display the hotel occupancy for a specified period of time (days; including past, present, and future dates). 3.2. The system shall display projected occupancy for a period of time (days). 3.3. The system shall display room revenue for a specified period of time (days). 3.4. The system shall display food revenue for a specified period of time (days). 3.5. The system shall display an exception report, showing where default room and food prices have been overridden. 3.6. The system shall allow for the addition of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles. 3.7. The system shall allow for the deletion of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles. 3.8. The system shall allow for the modification of information, regarding rooms, rates, menu items, prices, and user profiles. 3.9. The system shall allow managers to assign user passwords. 3.3 Nonfunctional Requirements Functional requirements define the needs in terms of performance, logical database requirements, design constraints, standards compliance, reliability, availability, security, maintainability, and portability. 3.3.1 Performance Requirements Performance requirements define acceptable response times for system functionality. The load time for user interface screens shall take no longer than two seconds. The log in information shall be verified within five seconds. Queries shall return results within five seconds. 3.3.2 Logical Database Requirements The logical database requirements include the retention of the following data elements. This list is not a complete list and is designed as a starting point for development. Booking/Reservation System Customer first name Customer last name Customer address Customer phone number Number of occupants Assigned room Default room rate Rate description Guaranteed room (yes/no) Credit card number Confirmation number Automatic cancellation date Expected check-in date Expected check-in time Actual check-in date Actual check-in time Expected check-out date Expected check-out time Actual check-out date Actual check-out time Customer feedback Payment received (yes/no) Payment type Total Bill Food Services Meal Meal type Meal item Meal order Meal payment (Bill to room/Credit/Check/Cash) 3.3.3 Design Constraints The Hotel Management System shall be a stand-alone system running in a Windows environment. The system shall be developed using Java and an Access or Oracle database. 3.3.4 Standards Compliance There shall be consistency in variable names within the system. The graphical user interface shall have a consistent look and feel. 3.3.5 Reliability Specify the factors required to establish the required reliability of the software system at time of delivery. 3.3.6 Availability The system shall be available during normal hotel operating hours. 3.3.7 Security Customer Service Representatives and Managers will be able to log in to the Hotel Management System. Customer Service Representatives will have access to the Reservation/Booking and Food subsystems. Managers will have access to the Management subsystem as well as the Reservation/Booking and Food subsystems. Access to the various subsystems will be protected by a user log in screen that requires a user name and password. 3.3.8 Maintainability The Hotel Management System is being developed in Java. Java is an object oriented programming language and shall be easy to maintain. 3.3.9 Portability The Hotel Management System shall run in any Microsoft Windows environment that contains Java Runtime and the Microsoft Access database. 4 Change Management Process Changes to this document may be made after approval from the project manager and the client approval officer. 5 Document Approvals 5.1 Team One Approval ____________________________________ Sandra Busik/Reita Sikka Date 5.2 Team Two Approval ____________________________________ Lisa Ferrett Date 6 Supporting Information A system context diagram as well as use cases and use case descriptions have been developed in separate documents.
Thursday, October 10, 2019
CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 1 Introduction 1. 0 origin and background of the report The report Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËA Contemporary view on Health Care System in BangladeshÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ is the outcome of Internship Program which is a precondition for acquiring MBA Degree. Only curriculum activities are not enough for handling the real business environment, so it is necessary to get the better knowledge about the real scenario. The report is a requirement of the internship program for my MBA Degree. Conduction of Internship/ Dissertation started on 20th December 2009 and ended on 12th February 2010.My internship supervisor at International Islamic University Chittagong, Dhaka Campus, Mr. R M Nasrullah Zaidi assigned me the topic of my report. The reason behind choosing this topic is getting a clear picture of the health sector of Bangladesh. Working on this topic gives me an opportunity to understand the Problem and prospect of health care system in Bangladesh. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world of globalizatio n Thiland is seeking to encourage Ã¢â¬Å"health touristÃ¢â¬ to its country under the banner of Ã¢â¬ËThailand: Centre of Excellent Health Care of AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢, India is building an e-health industry and Singapore is building hospitals abroad.When scenarios are like that where the health sector of Bangladesh ? Here we try to get a idea about what is the real scenario of various related issues like access to health-relate knowledge and technology, the provision of new hospital and aliened health institution and the availability of health professionals. 1. 1 objectives of the report The objective of my study divided into two segments: 1. 1. 1 Primary Objective The primary objective of this report is to meet the requirements of the course, OCP 5900, Internship. 1. 1. 2 Secondary ObjectiveThe secondary objectives are: * To confer a clear picture of National health senario. * To know about list and capacity of existing Hospital & clinic * To know about manpower supply capacity and req uirement * To know about Morbidity and its rate * To know about Available alternative or traditional medical care system. * To know about health education of mass people * To know about government structure- health system * To know about demographic structure of population * To know about role of different institution in respect of Health Care 1. methodology I have planned to perform the task in four stages: Step 1 Planning of the work Step 2 Data collection Step 3 Analysis and interpretation of data Step 4 Drawing conclusions and recommendations The first stage is the most important stage. I have allocated enormous time for this stage. I am emphasizing on thorough and detailed planning. Planning includes detailed methodology and scheduling of the remaining three stages. I am also emphasizing on documenting detailed planning which would serve as a guideline and performance measure for the whole report.The second stage is the data collection stage. I have planned to collect data in t hree main phases. * Collect data from internet, different books and medical journals. * Conduct interviews with selected representatives from different level of health professionals. This phase actually concentrates on clarification and elaboration of data collected from the first phase. * Conduct interviews and communicate with health providers who are in the front line. This phase actually concentrates on accumulating data for the overall scenario. The third stage is the analysis and interpretation of data.In this stage I would use some statistical and graphical analysis tools to interpret the relationship among different variables and factors. The fourth stage is the stage for drawing conclusions and prescribing recommendations. In this stage the results from the previous stage would be used to draw conclusions about different aspects of concerned matters within the organization and prescribe some recommendation for future improvement. The project is base on both primary and seco ndary information. Primary Source: * Informal discussion with employees of UHL. Observation while working in different desks * Interview with health care providers. Secondary Sources: * Official Web Site of UHL * Annual Reports of Ministry of Health * Various Manuals and Brochures of DG Health * Different publications of WHO. 1. 3 scope This report solely deals with the health related information of Bangladesh. Here we try to accumulate information from various topics that have role with the health system of a country. The project is based on both primary and secondary information. Health system is a very vast area to work; thousands of issues are related here.Here we make some major segment to discuss like national health status, health care delivery system, facility based health service, leading public health problems and health education. 1. 4 limitations 1. The major limitation faced in preparing this report is the enormous number of parameters that have relationship to the heal th care system of a country. 2. Less availability of data at all tiers of service providing especially in the private sector. 3. Less accessibility to data due to shortage of time and proper arrangement and at the same time the authenticity of data not beyond questions. 4.Health sector requires few specified technical knowhow for better understanding. Being a non medical background some time face some problem to understand technical terminology and frequently needed explanation and further study. CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 2 Bangladesh: National Health Status 2. 0Location and Geography Bangladesh was emerged as an independent and sovereign country in 1971 following a nine months war of liberation. The country is one of the largest deltas of the world with a total area of 147,570 sq km. Being a low-lying country it stretches latitudinal between 20? 34Ã¢â¬ ² and 26? 38Ã¢â¬ ² north and longitudinally between 88? 01Ã¢â¬ ² and 92? 1Ã¢â¬ ² east. It is mostly surrounded by Indian Territory (West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya), except for a small strip in the southeast by Myanmar. Bay of Bengal lies on the south. The standard time of the country is GMT +6 hrs. 2. 1History Bangladesh has a glorious history and rich heritage. Once it was known as Ã¢â¬ËSonar Bangla' or the Ã¢â¬ËGolden Bengal'. The territory now constituting Bangladesh was under the Muslim rule for over five and a half centuries from 1201 to 1757 AD. Subsequently, it came under the British rule following the defeat of the sovereign ruler, Nawab Sirajuddaula, at the battle of Plessey on 23 June 1757.The British ruled over the Indian subcontinent including this land for nearly 190 years from 1757 to 1947. During that period, Bangladesh was a part of the British Indian provinces of Bengal and Assam. With the termination of British rule in August 1947, the sub-continent was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan and was called Ã¢â¬ËEast Pakistan'. 2. 2Physiography With a bout half of its surface below the 10 m contour line, Bangladesh is located at the lowermost reaches of three mighty river systems -the Ganges-Padma river system, Brahmaputra-Jamuna river system and Surma-Meghna river system.Coinciding with the division of the country based on altitude the land can be divided into three major categories of physical units: Tertiary hills, Pleistocene uplands and Recent plains (formed in recent epoch). The heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with the low altitude of major parts of the country makes floods an annual phenomenon in Bangladesh. Quaternary (began about 2 million years ago and extends to the present) sediments, deposited mainly by the Ganges, Brahmaputra (Jamuna) and Meghna rivers and their numerous distributaries, cover about three-quarters of Bangladesh.The physiography and the drainage pattern of the vast alluvial plains in the central, northern and western regions have gone under considerable alterations in recent times. In the context of ph ysiography, Bangladesh may be classified into three distinct regions: (a) floodplains, (b) terraces and (c) hills, each having distinguishing characteristics of its own. The physiography of the country has been divided into 24 sub-regions and 54 units. 2. 3Climate Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon-type climate, with a hot and rainy summer and a dry winter.January is the coolest month with temperatures averaging near 260 C (780 F) and April is the warmest with temperatures from 330 to 360 C (910 to 960 F). The climate is one of the wettest in the world. Most places receive more than 1,525 mm of rain a year, and areas near the hills receive 5,080 mm). Most rains occur during the monsoon (June-September) and little in winter (November-February). Bangladesh has warm temperatures throughout the year, with relatively little variation from month to month. January tends to be the coolest month and May the warmest.In Dhaka, the average January temperature is about 19Ã °C (about 66Ã °F), an d the average May temperature is about 29Ã °C (about 84Ã °F). 2. 4Administration From the administrative point of view, Bangladesh is divided into 6 Divisions, 64 Districts, 6 City Corporations, 308 Municipalities, 482 Upazilas and 4498 Unions. The six administrative division's are namely, Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Barisal and Sylhet. The country is governed by the Parliamentary Democracy and it has a unitary National Parliament, nameBangladesh Jatiya Sangsad. There are 40 Ministries and 12 Divisions.The Ministry of Health ; Family Welfare is one of largest ministries in the country. At the national level, the Ministry oHealth ; Family Welfare (MOHFW) is responsible for policy, planning and decision making atmacro level. Under MOHFW, there are four Directorates, viz. , Directorate General of HealthServices, Directorate General of Family Planning, Directorate of Nursing Services and Directorate of Drug Administration. Beside, there are a separate National Nutrition Proje (NNP)and Construction, Maintanance and Management Unit (CMMU). . 5Economy Bangladesh has an agrarian economy, although the share of agriculture to GDP has beendecreasing over the last few years. Yet it dominates the economy accommodating major rural labour force. From marketing point of view, Bangladesh has been following a mixed economy that operates on free market principles. The GDP of Bangladesh is 6. 21% and per capitincome is US$ 599. The principal industries of the country include readymade garments,textiles, chemical fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, tea processing, sugar, leather goods etc.Theprincipal mineral includes Natural gas, Coal, white clay, glass sand etc. 2. 6Communication The transport system of Bangladesh consists of roads, railways, inland waterways, two sea ports, maritime shipping and civil aviation catering for both domestic and international traffic. Presentlythere are about 21,000 km of paved roads; 2,706 route-kilometres of railways (BG-884km and MG -1,822 km ); 3,800 km of perennial waterways which increases to 6,000 km durinthe monsoon, 2 seaports (Chittagong and Chalna) and 3 international (Dhaka, Chittagong andSylhet) and 8 domestic airports. . 7Religion and Culture The majority (about 88%) of the people are Muslim. Over 98% of the people speak in Bangla. English, however is widely spoken. Bangladesh is heir to a rich cultural legacy. In two thousand or more years of its chequered history, many illustrious dynasties of kings and Sultans ruled the country and have left their mark in the shape of magnificent cities and monuments. The people of Bangladesh are very simple and friendly. A beautiful communal harmony among the different religions has ensured a very congenial atmosphere.More than 75% of the population lives in rural areas. Urbanization has, however, been rapid in the last few decades. 2. 8Population and Demography Bangladesh is now Asia's fifth and world's eighth populous country with an estimated population of about 146 mil lion. Density of population is around 979 per square kilometer, the highest in the world. Rural population comprises about 76% while urban constitutes about 24%. Adult literacy rate is 54% (2006). Census of 2001 reveals that 43 per cent of the population is below 15 years of age.This young age structure constitutes built-in population momentum. Also urban population is increasing quite fast. Though Bangladesh has made progress in reducing poverty and per capita income has been creeping up, a substantial number of population are poor. Progress made in improving Bangladesh's Human Development Index (HDI) has placed her among the medium-ranking HDI countries. Strong policy interventions led to continuous reduction in the annual growth rate of population from the level of 2. 33 % in 1981 to 1. 54 in 2001 and further to 1. 48 (2007). The TotalFartility Rate (TFR) also went down from 3. 4 in 1993-94 to 2. 2 (2007). The CPR (any method) increased from 44. 6% in 1993-94 to 58. 1% in 2004, b ut again fell down to 55. 8% in 2007. Life expectancy at birth has continuously been rising, and is now 65 years (2007) from the level of 58 (1994). Reversing past trends, women now live longer than men. The country, however, is over burdened with about two million new faces every year creating extra pressure on food, shelter, education, health, employment, etc. , and thus making the anticipated economic growth difficult. . 9Health Status Since independence Bangladesh has made significant progress in health outcomes. Infant and Child mortality rates have been markedly reduced. The underfive mortality rate in Bangladesh declined from 151 deaths per thousand live births in 1991 to 65 deaths/1000 live births in 2007 and during the same period infant mortality rate reduced from 94 deaths per 1000 live births to 52. EPI coverage extended its reach from 54% in 1991 to 87. 2% in 2006. The MMR reduced from 574/100,000 live births in 1991 to 290 in 2007.Deliveries attended by skilled birth a ttendants increased from only 5% in 1990 to 20% in 2006. The prevalence of malaria dropped from 42 cases /100,000 in 2001 to 34 in 2005. Bangladesh has also achieved significant success in halting and reversing the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Detection of TB by the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has more than doubled between 2002 and 2007, from 34 to 92%. The successful treatment of tuberculosis has progressed from 84% in 2002 to 91% in 2007. Polio and leprosy are virtually eliminated. HIV prevalence is still very low.Development of countrywide network of health care infrastructure in public sector is remarkable. However, availability of drugs at the health facilities, deployment of adequate health professionals along with maintenance of the health care facilities remain as crucial issues, impacting on optimum utilization of public health facilities 2. 10Nutrition Status There has been considerable progress in reducing malnutrition and micro nutrient deficiencies i n Bangladesh. According to BDHS, percentage of U5 underweight (6-59 months) has reduced to 46. (2007) from 67 (1990) and that of U5 stunted (24-59 months) from 54. 6 (1996) to 36. 2 (2007). Percentage of children 1-5 years receiving vitamin-A supplements in last six months has increased from 73. 3 (1999-00) to 88. 3 (2007). The rate of night blindness has reduced to 0. 04 per 1000 people (IPHN, HKI 2006). However, in spite of efforts taken by the government, high rates of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies along with gender discrimination remain common in Bangladesh. 2. 11Urban Health ServiceThe urban areas provide a contrasting picture of availability of different facilities and services for secondary and tertiary level health care, while primary health care facilities and services for the urban population at large and the urban poor in particular are inadequate. Rapid influx of migrants and increased numbers of people living in urban slums in large cities are creating con tinuous pressure on urban health care service delivery. Since the launching of two urban primary health care projects, the services have been delivered by the city corporations and municipalities through contracted NGOs in the project's area.Rest of the urban areas and services are being covered by MOHFW's facilities. Moreover, 35 urban dispensaries under the DGHS are providing outdoor patient services including EPI and MCH to the urban population. 2. 12Organizational Setup of MOHFW The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare is one of largest ministries in the country. At the national level, the ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MOH&FW) is responsible for policy, planning and decision making at macro level. 2. 12. 1Executing Authorities of MOHFW:Under MOHFW, there are four Directorates General or Directorates, e. g. , Directorate General of Health Services, Directorate General of Family Planning, Directorate of Nursing Services and Directorate of Drug Administration. 2. 13Directorat e General of health Services (DGHS) The Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) is entrusted for the implementation of the policy decisions of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) as regards health service delivery to all the people under the jurisdiction of the Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh.It provides technical guidance to the ministry. DGHS carries out its activities through different directors, line directors, project directors, institution heads, district and upazila health managers and union health staffs. 2. 14Health, Nutrition ; Population Sector Program (HNPSP) The constitution Bangladesh mandates for basic health care services for its people as one of the fundamental responsibilities of the state. Towards this goal, the government has taken different endeavors to extend health facilities to the population.The broader policy document of the Government of Bangladesh that shapes direction of health care is the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) although the current government has indicated that it will go for Five Year Plan. The Government of Bangladesh is running a program through which the health care services are provided to the people from the grass root to the central level. The program is entitled Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Program for the period of July 2003 through June 2010 (HNPSP 2003-2010).The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) designed the Program Implementation Plan (PIP) in accordance with the PRSP to implement its sector wide program popularly known as Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Program (HNPSP). The HNPSP covers 38 Operational Plans (OP) to be implemented by 38 Line Directors and 14 Projects/Programs. The Government has recently decided to continue HNPSP until 2011. The details of the program are well documented in the form of Program Implementation Plan (PIP) duly endorsed at the highest policy level of the government, the Executive Committee for National Ec onomic Council (ECNEC).The Implementing Agency of the program is Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) with its attached departments. The financial involvement is estimated to be around Taka 324,503 million which includes contributions for GOB (Government of Bangladesh) and DPs (Development Partners). 2. 15Priority Objectives and Goal One of the important goals of PRSP and HNPSP is attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The health sector is specially striving for attainment of health related MDGs.The priority objectives of HNPSP are: (i) reducing MMR; (ii) reducing TFR; (iii) reducing malnutrition; (iv)reducing infant and under-five mortality; (v) reducing the burden of TB and other diseases; and (vi) prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases including injuries. The commitment of the government targets towards reaching the goal of sustainable improvement in health, nutrition and family planning status of the people by the end of the program period. It ma y be mentioned here that HNPSP deals with health care service delivery of the public sector.Nevertheless, it strives to maintain a strong cooperation and coordination with the efforts of the Private Sector as well so as to ensure the overall well-being of every citizen of the country. Of the 38 OPs, 7 are under MOHFW, 19 under Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), 9 under Directorate General of Family Planning (DGFP), 1 under Directorate of Nursing Services (DNS), 1 under Directorate of Drug Administration (DDA) and 1 under National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT) and.Of the 14 projects/programs, 1 is under MOHFW, 9 under DGHS, 1 under DGFP, 2 under DNS and 1 under NIPORT. The Health Bulletin 2009 is an attempt of Management Information System (MIS) of DGHS to provide an overview of the current health profiles of Bangladesh. CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 3 Health care delivery systems of Bangladesh Distribution of public health care services and facilities follows similar pattern of administrative tiers, viz. national (mostly capital-based in Dhaka), regional (in divisions), district, upazila, union and ward. The country has 7 divisions, 64 districts, 482 upazillas and 4,498 unions.As the Ministry of health and family Welfare deploys health workforce according to the older ward system, which divides each union into 3 wards. Therefore, number of MOHFW wards is 13,494. Primary health care (PHC), which includes family planning services in the urban area (city corporations and municipalities), is provided by Ministry of Local Government; and in rest of the country by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) provides health care service. Provision of secondary and tertiary care, in both urban divisional directorates with necessary staff. and rural areas, is the sole responsibility of MOHFW.The MOHFW delivers its services through two separate executing authorities, viz. Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) and Directorate General of Family Planning (DGFP). The names explain their functions. PHC services of both DGHS and DGFP begin at the ward level through a set of community health staffs, at least one in each ward (Table). To supervise these field staffs, there is one assistant health inspector (for DGHS) and one family planning inspector (for DGFP) at union level. There are several hundred non-bed community facilities to provide outpatient services (1466 for DGHS and 3500 for DGFP).Besides DGFP also operates additional 97 maternal and child welfare centers (MCWCs) (union: 23; upazila: 12; district: 62), 471 MCH-FP clinics (upazila: 407; district: 64), 177 NGO clinics (upazila: 68; district: 104; national: 05), 08 model clinics (national: 02; regional: 06) and organizes 30,000 makeshift satellite clinics per month. The public sector hospital care in Bangladesh is mainly provided by DGHS. Primary level hospital care| Secondary level hospital care| Tertiary level hospital care| Begins through Upazila Health Comp lex (31 to 50 Bed) existing in 418 upazilas. The district hospitals (50 to 375 bed), one each district, provide secondary level hospital care in several specialty areas. | The regional hospital are multidisciplinary tertiary care hospitals (250 to 1700 beds) mostly affiliated with teaching institutes. At the national level, there are postgraduate and specialized hospitals (100 to 600 beds)| 3. 0Divisional level health organization At the divisional level, there is a divisional Director for Health. S/he is the head of a Divisional Directors supervise the activities of the civil Surgeons. 3. 1District level health organizationAt the district level, Civil Surgeon is the health manager. S/he has own administrative office supported by various categories of staff. There is either a Sadar Hospital or a General Hospital in each district head quarter. The Hospital provides services under the management of Civil Surgeon with a view to render out-patient, in-patient, emergency, laboratory and imaging services to the people. The in-patient services internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology and other common specialist clinical services. It is the secondary level referral facility of health services of Bangladesh.Currently there are 59 Sadar district hospitals and 2 General hospitals in the country each having 100-250 bed. 3. 2Upazila level health organization Upazila Health Complex (UHC) is another fixed service delivery point next to district level hospital. It provides the first level referral services to the population. In each UHC, there are posts for 9 (nine) doctors including one Upazila Health and Family Planning Officer (UHFPO). UHFPO is the Chief Health Officer of upazila and also Head of the UHC. Other doctors of UHC are Junior Consultants-4, Resident Medical Officer-1, Assistant Surgeons (MO)-2 and Dental Surgeon-1.There are 418 Upazila Health Complexes (UHC) in the country of which 153 are 50bed and rests are 31-bed. UHC provides out-patient , in-patient and emergency services, limited diagnostic and imaging services, emergency obstetric care, contraceptive services and dental care. 3. 3Union level health organization There are four types of static health facilities in the union level. These are Rural Health Centers (RHC, 10-bed hospital), Union Sub-centers (USC), Union Health and Family Welfare Centers (UHFWC) and Community Clinics (CC). There are 22 RHCs, in each of these, there are sanctioned posts of 20 staffs.RHC provides both out-patient and inpatient services. In an USC, there is sanctioned posts for one medical officer, one medical assistant, one pharmacist and one MLSS. Number of USC is 1,362; that for UHFWC is 87. Under HPSP, Government planned for establishing one Community Clinic for every 6000 rural populations. Number of CCs so far built is 11,883. But, these were not made functional. Recently Government has decided to start the CCs again. The total number of CCs will be 18000. The existing UHCs and Union level facilities will also provide services of CCs in the respective communities.So,13,500 additional CCs will be required. The main health workforce in the union level is the domiciliary staff called health assistants. They are placed in each ward, which is the lowest and smallest administrative unit of the health sector. They visit the homes of the local people for providing primary health care services and collection of routine health data. The health assistants routinely organize satellite clinics for immunization services. Besides there are other small to large hospitals and special purpose hospitals spread across the country both in rural as well as in urban areas.Under the DGHS, there are altogether 40 teaching/training institutes and 589 small to large hospitals. In Family Planning sector, there are one national research-cum-training institute, two hospital-based training centers, and 32 other training centers (national: 12; regional: 20). Nearly six hundred health managers under DGHS and a similar number under DGFP, from national to upazila levels, play roles in administering the health and family planning services (1,17). This figure does not include the institute and clinic/hospital heads. CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 4Facility Based Health Services Hospital service is one of the important activities of health sector, which is the most visible health service also. This chapter of the Health Bulletin 2009 will provide an overview of the hospitals and their bed capacity as well as utilization based on the information from January through December of 2008. 4. 0Hospitals by bed capacity There are 585 hospitals ranging from 10 beds to 1,700 beds under DGHS currently. All of these hospitals provide a total of 37,090 beds. The table below gives a detail profile. No. f hospitals by bed capacity and total beds under DGHS Sl. No. | Bed capacity | No. of hospitals in this type | Total beds | 1 | 1700 beds | 1 | 1700 | 2 | 1010 beds | 1 | 1010 | 3 | 900 beds | 1 | 900 | 4 | 800 beds | 1 | 800 | 5 | 600 beds | 5 | 3000 | 6 | 500 beds | 3 | 1500 | 7 | 414 beds | 1 | 414 | 8 | 375 beds | 1 | 375 | 9 | 250 beds | 19 | 4750 | 10 | 200 beds | 2 | 400 | 11 | 150 beds | 3 | 450 | 12 | 100 beds | 53 | 5300 | 13 | 80 beds | 1 | 80 | 14 | 56 beds | 1 | 56 | 15 | 50 beds | 158 | 7900 | 16 | 31 beds | 271 | 8401 | 17 | 30 beds | 1 | 30 | 8 | 25 beds | 1 | 25 | 19 | 20 beds | 43 | 860 | 20 | 10 beds | 22 | 220 | | Total = | 589 | 3817138171| Type of hospitals Following list gives an overview of the type of hospitals currently in operation under DGHS Type of hospitals | No. of hospitals | Total bed capacity | Postgraduate institute hospital | 7 | 2014 | Dental college hospital | 1 | 20 | Hospital for alternative medicine | 2 | 200 | Medical college hospital | 14 | 8685 | Mental hospital, Pabna | 1 | 500 | Shekh Abu Naser Specialized Hospital | 1 | 250 | Narayanganj 200 bed Hospital | 1 | 200 |Specialized Health center (Asthma ; Burn unit) | 2 | 150 | Sarkari karmoc hari hospital | 1 | 100 | Chest hospital | 12 | 566 | Infectious disease hospital | 5 | 180 | Leprosy hospital | 3 | 130 | District Level Hospital | 60 | 8100 | 50 bed hospital(Tongi, Saidpur) | 2 | 100 | 100 bed hospital (Narsingdi) | 1 | 100 | 25 bed hospital (Jhenidah) | 1 | 25 | Bangladesh korea moitree hospital | 1 | 20 | Upazila health complex | 421 | 15958 | Health complex (31 bed) | 3 | 93 | 20 bed hospital | 28 | 560 | 10 bed hospital | 22 | 220 | Postgraduate Institute Hospitals all are national level hospitals and are located in Dhaka) Total = 7 | No. of beds | | Total | Revenue | Develop. | Proposed | Beds will Increase | 1. National Institute of Chest Disease and Hospital (NIDCH) | 600 | 600 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 2. National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD) | 414 | 250 | 164 | 0 | 0 | 3. National Institute of Traumatology and Rehabilitation (NITOR) | 500 | 500 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 4 National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICR;H) | 50 | 50 | 0 | 250 | 200 | 5 Na tional Institute of Ophthalmology (NIO) | 250 | 250 | 0 | 0 | | 6.National Institute of Kidney Disease and Hospital (NIKDU) | 100 | 0 | 100 | 0 | 0 | 7. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMHR) | 100 | 50 | 50 | 0 | | Total = | 2014 | 1700 | 314 | 250 | 200 | Medical College Hospitals of Teaching Hospitals of equivalent level (Regional hospitals and are used as undergraduate and postgraduate teaching hospitals). Division | District | Name of hospital (Total = 17) | No. of beds | | | | Beds | Revenue | Develop. | Proposed | Bed will increase | Barisal | Barisal | Sher-e-Bangla Medical College Hospital | 00 | 600 | 0 | 1000 | 400 | Chittagong | Chittagong | Chittagong Medical College Hospital | 1010 | 1010 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Comilla | Comilla Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 500 | 250 | Dhaka | Dhaka | Dhaka Medical College Hospital | 1700 | 1700 | 0 | 2000 | 300 | | | Sir Salimullh Medical College Hospital | 600 | 600 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Shahid Suhrawardy Hospital, Dhaka | 37 5 | 375 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Homoeopathic Degree College ; Hospital | 100 | 100 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Unani ; Ayurvadic College ; Hospital | 100 | 100 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | | Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka | 20 | 20 | 0 | 200 | 180 | | Faridpur | Faridpur Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Mymensingh | Mymensingh Medical College Hospital | 800 | 800 | 0 | 1000 | 200 | Khulna | | Khulna Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 500 | 250 | Rajshahi | Bogra | SZR Medical College Hospital | 500 | 500 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Dinajpur | Dinajpur Medical College Hospital | 250 | 250 | 0 | 500 | 250 | | Rajshahi | Rajshahi Medical College Hospital | 600 | 600 | 0 | 0 | 0 | | Rangpur | Rangpur Medical College Hospital | 600 | 600 | 0 | 1000 | 400 | Sylhet | Sylhet | MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital | 900 | 900 | 0 | 1000 | 100 | Total = | 8905 | 8905 | 0 | 7700 | 2330 | Specialized Centers under DGHS with bed capacity (Year 2008) Division | District | Name of hospital (Total = 2) | No. of beds | | | | Beds | Revenue | Develop. | Proposed | Bed will increase | Dhaka | Dhaka | 1. National Asthma Center at NIDCH | 100 | 0 | 100 | 0 | 0 | | | 2. Burn Unit | 50 | 0 | 50 | 200 | 150 | Total = | 150 | 0 | 150 | 200 | 150 | | | 4. 1BSMMU Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) is the premier Postgraduate Medical Institution of the country. It bears the heritage to Institute of Postgraduate Medical Research (IPGMR)which was established in December 1965.In the year 1998 the Government converted IPGMR into a Medical University for expanding the facilities for higher medical education and research in the country. It has an enviable reputation for providing high quality postgraduate education in different specialties. The university has strong link with other professional bodies at home and abroad. The university is expanding rapidly and at present, the university has many departments equipped with modern technology for service, teaching and research. Besides educ ation, the university plays the vital role of promoting research activities in various discipline of medicine. Since its inception, the university has also been delivering general and specialized clinical service as a tertiary level healthcare center.The university provides patient care services on various disciplines like Psychiatry, Physical medicine, Pediatrics, Neonatology, Pediatric neurology, Pediatric surgery, Clinical pathology, Dermatology, Colorectal surgery, Nephrology, Urology, Neurology, Neuro-Surgery, Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Ophthalmology, ENT, Obstetrics ; gynecology, Surgery, Hepatobiliary Surgery, dentistry, and blood transfusion services. It provides different treatment services like Intensive Care, Lithotripsy, Pain management and diagnostic services like radiology, endoscopy, CT scan ; MRI and a one-stop laboratory service. BSMMU runs Institute of Nuclear Medicine (INM). INM is a joint project of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission and BS MMU. The INM has modern diagnostic and therapeutic facilities including computerized ultrasonography, gamma camera and a well equipped radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory.This is considered to be the best center for noninvasive diagnoses. 4. 2SmilingÃ SunÃ FranchiseÃ Program Ã (SSFP) The Smiling Sun Franchise Program is a project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). It is intended to complement the wide network of healthcare facilities set up by the Government of Bangladesh resorting to an innovative approach to health care franchising. SSFP is committed to improve the quality of life of all Bangladeshis by providing superior, friendly and affordable health services in a sustainable manner. To achieve relevant health outcomes, SSFP is jointly working with partnering NGOs to convert the existing network into a viable social health system.SSFP objective is to strengthen partnering organization's quality of care while helping them to enhance t heir financial sustainability, thus enabling them to continue serving an important segment of the Bangladeshi society, including the poorest of the poor. Currently 29 NGOs are providing health care services to women, children and through 319 static and 8,500 satellite clinics in 61 districts of Bangladesh. 34 clinics of this network are providing Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) services. This network will continue to expand the volume and types of quality health care under ESD provided to the able-to-pay customers as well as underserved and poor clients. 4. 3Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP-II): About 35 million people representing almost 25 percent of the population of Bangladesh live in urban areas, a large proportion of whom are slum dwellers.The health knowledge of the urban slum dwellers and their access to essential basic health services are low. Children living in urban slums are deprived of education and health care, and vulnerable to violence, abuse and exploitation . On the other hand, high rate of mortality and morbidity exists among women who remain neglected in terms of meeting their basic health needs and ensuring their rights. The Government of Bangladesh is committed to put in place strategies to address the issues of improving the health status of the urban population. This is to be done through improved access to and utilization of efficient, effective and sustainable Primary Health Care Services.The provision of public health services in urban areas is the responsibility of Local Government Bodies by dint of City Corporation Ordinance of 1983 and Pouroshova Ordinance of 1977. For primary health care services delivery, the public sector works in partnership with NGOs and the local government institutions such as the City Corporations and Pouroshovas. The health service delivery mechanism in urban areas involves diverse roles of the government (MOLGRD&C and MOHFW), NGOs and the private sector. CHAPTER Ã¢â¬â 5 Leading Public Health Pr oblems 5. 0Communicable disease The prevention and control of communicable diseases represent a significant challenge to those providing health-care services in Bangladesh.Sound knowledge on the disease epidemiology is a must for the health service providers in various levels. The Bangladesh population is namely affected by diarrheal diseases, cholera, hepatitis A & E, Malaria, Mycobacterial Disease like Tuberculosis and Leprosy, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Nipah virus infection, etc. Crowding, poor access to safe water, inadequate hygiene and toilet facilities, and unsafe food preparation and handling practices are associated with transmission. Cholera is endemic Bangladesh, between 800 and 1000 cases are usually being recorded daily at the hospital of the ICCDR, B in Dhaka. Hepatitis A and E levels are usually high in the country.Malaria risk exists throughout the year in Bangladesh. Thirteen out of 64 administrative districts are high malaria endemic areas. 98% of all malaria cases reported are from these districts, which are mainly located in the border areas of India and Myanmar. Tuberculosis still remains as a major public health problem, which ranks Bangladesh fifth among the high-TB burden countries in the world. The present revised National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) was launched and field implementation of DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment short course) was started in 1993. Kala Azar or Leishmaniasis or is endemic in Bangladesh and has an incidence of 175 per 100,000 per annum.It is caused by a protozoa which is transmitted from the bite of infected sandfly and may present in cutaneous or visceral forms (particularly common in Bangladesh). Filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic disease causality urogenital organs, breast, etc. with long arm disability. In Bangladesh, it is endemic in 23 districts, mostly the bordering ones. About 20 million people are already infected, most of whom are incapacitated. Leprosy has been a major health problem in Bangladesh for a long time. Bangladesh was considered a high endemic country and was listed among ten countries with high case load (1992). Leprosy situation has changed globally after 1981 when the Multi Drugs Treatment (MDT) were introduced.Hepatitis A virus infection is common in Bangladesh with a prevalence of about 2% to 7%. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is less than 1%. Sporadic outbreak is often seen caused by hepatitis E virus infection; but presence of hepatitis D infection is not exactly known. Polio free status prevailed from 2001 until now (June 2009) except a small window period in 2006 when 18 cases of child polio were seen in boarder areas of Bangladesh. it is assumed that these cases were imported from India. Dengue fever/Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/ DHF) is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypty mosquito. It is on the increase in South East Asia. Bangladesh reported 100, 000 cases in 2005.However case fatality rate (CFR) remained